Examining emotions in English language learning classes: A case of EFL emotions
Reza Pishghadam, Mohammad Zabetipour and Afrooz Aminzadeh
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
Emotions play a significant role in learning in general, and foreign language learning in particular. Although with the rise of humanistic approaches, enough attention has been given to the affective domain in language learning, the emotions English as a foreign language (EFL) learners experience regarding English language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing have not gained adequate attention. Accordingly, this study investigates whether language skills play any role in engendering emotions in EFL learners, or in other words, how language skills affect EFL learners' emotions. To this end, 20 students were interviewed to elicit their views about the emotions they experienced in EFL classes, as a basis for constructing the EFL Skills Emotions Questionnaire containing 20 items. Then, 308 students were asked to take the newly-designed scale. Afterwards, confirmatory factor analysis was utilised to validate the scale, and then EFL learners' emotions generated by language skills were measured and compared using ANOVA. Findings indicated that EFL learners experience anger mostly over listening skills, enjoyment and pride over speaking, shame over listening and speaking, hope, boredom, and hopelessness over writing and listening, and finally, anxiety over all of language skills. Finally the results were discussed and some suggestions were made for future research.
Having been defined as "the emotional side of human behavior" (Brown, 1994, p. 135), the affective domain plays a significant role in foreign language learning too. Although there is no doubt about the significance of affective factors in language learning process, no attention has been given to them until the rise of humanistic approach and its particular attention to the affective domain and emotional states (Mendez Lopez & Pea Aguilar, 2013). When it comes to language learning, it should be noted that investigating the role of emotion is not a novel phenomenon in the domain of second/foreign language teaching and learning (Pishghadam, Adamson & Shayesteh, 2013); however, there is only scanty research done on emotions experienced by English language learners (Imai, 2010; Pishghadam, 2009). Despite this, previous literature has indicated that language learners experience a variety of both negative and positive emotions such as enjoyment and pride (Goetz, Frenzel, Hall & Pekrun, 2008), fear (Ellis, 1994), and anxiety (Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986). Assuming this, existing literature has focused more on the destructive impacts of negative emotions like anxiety and has not paid adequate attention to the beneficial impacts of positive emotions (Pekrun, Goetz, Titz & Perry, 2002b). Keeping this in mind, although several studies have been done on emotions in the English as a foreign language (EFL) domain, there has been no comprehensive study focusing on how language skills (i.e., listening, speaking, reading, and writing) can evoke emotions such as boredom, hopelessness, shame, and enjoyment, to name a few.
Consequently, this body of research can be distinguished from prior literature in terms of its focus on examining the role of language skills in engendering a variety of positive and negative emotions, which surely function differently, but should be studied simultaneously. To this end, the present study aims to, at first, develop and validate a scale called EFL Skills Emotions Scale, which assesses EFL learners' emotional states engendered by language skills. The second aim of this study is to measure the emotions EFL learners experience with regard to language skills. Thus, our research questions are:
Q1. What factors underlie the EFL Skills Emotions Scale?
Q2. Do language skills play any significant role in engendering emotions?
Keeping this in mind, although several questionnaires and instruments have been developed for assessing emotions, there had not been a comprehensive instrument before 2005, which could specifically investigate academic emotions and their impacts on achievement. The Academic Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) developed by Pekrun, Goetz and Perry (2005) is a self-report instrument which has been designed to assess the relationship between achievement emotions and students' learning and academic performance. Feelings of anger, enjoyment, hope, boredom, and hopelessness are among such series of emotions, which can be regarded as the most prevalent emotions in academic settings, particularly in the language learning domain.
Generally, negative emotions affect students' motivation, attention, and use of learning strategies (Zeidner, 1998). Similarly, Goleman (1995) took the stance that "students who are anxious, angry, or depressed do not learn; people who are caught in these states do not take in information efficiently or deal with it well" (p. 78). For instance, anxiety, which is the most frequently studied emotion in academic domains (Pekrun et al., 2002a), is also associated with foreign language learning and affects EFL learners' achievement (Horwitz et al., 1986) and performance in tasks related to language skills. Many scholars believe that foreign language anxiety has negative impacts on the learners' productive language skills (e.g., Cheng, 2002; Daly & Wilson, 1983; Spielmann & Radnofsky, 2001). However, there are some assertions made by other scholars who take the stance that anxiety has negative effects on reading and listening comprehension as perceptive skills (Bacon, 1989; Lund, 1991; Sellers, 2000). Prior research has indicated that students who have higher levels of writing anxiety write shorter compositions even when they are writing in their native language (Horwitz et al., 1986). Similarly, Peyman and Sedighi (2011) found that the more EFL leaners have stress, the worse they perform in reading comprehension tests. In the same vein, Mahmoudzade (2012) indicated that, in comparison with less proficient EFL learners, those who have higher levels of speaking proficiency experience less speaking anxiety.
On the contrary, emotions like anger, relief, enjoyment, hope, shame, pride, boredom, and hopelessness, which have profound effects on achievement and learning (Pekrun, 2006) and are critically crucial for learners' motivation, learning strategies, identity development, and health (Schutz & Pekrun, 2007), have been extensively neglected. Regarding enjoyment, Ykselir (2014) found that language learners have high levels of enjoyment before learning as compared to enjoyment during learning and enjoyment after learning. This is somehow in harmony with the assertion Horwitz et al. (1986) made arguing that anxiety is inherent in foreign language learning processes. In brief, a positive activating emotion like enjoyment can increase interest and motivation (Pekrun et al., 2007). Prior studies investigating the relation between emotional states and cognitive performance have also found out that pleasant emotions like enjoyment and hope bring about flexible thought, the ability of elaborating ideas, and engagement in self-regulative and metacognitive strategies. It has also been revealed that positive moods and emotional states have impacts on students' performances in processing information (Febrilia, Warokka & Abdullah, 2011), and that they have a facilitating role in memory processes and retrieval of long-term memory (Isen & Patrick, 1983), and executive tasks (Phillips, Bull, Adams & Fraser, 2002).
On the other hand, for instance, concerning boredom, Pekrun et al. (2007) took the stance that boredom is induced when students do not find any negative or positive value in the activity they are doing. According to Brookes (2010), boredom is mostly more associated with writing than might be expected. This may be due to the fact that students find little mutual engagement in writing, while the intensity of mutual engagement in speaking and conversations is more, which leads to a more enjoyable atmosphere in speaking classes. In this regard, Brookes (2010) stated that if students understand that there is mutual engagement in writing skills too, they become more enthusiastic and will be less likely to experience boredom. In addition, it has also been found that unpleasant emotions like boredom and hopelessness are associated with external guidance and regulation (Pekrun et al., 2002a). These findings imply that language teachers should adjust their teaching methodology and approach to one that can decrease the detrimental impacts of negative emotions like boredom, and increase the beneficial effects of positive emotions because as Fried (2011) stated, positive emotions lead to the production of more ideas and strategies by both teachers and students. Considering the fact that teachers play the most influential role in promoting students' achievement (Darling-Hammond, 1997), and bearing in mind that emotionally intelligent teachers are more able to interact with their students and to make positive teacher-student relationships (Rust, 2014), it can be concluded that teachers can also play an active role in understanding and regulating their students' emotions. Thus, due to its significance, the issue needs to be included in teacher education programs.
However, one of the key points which is worth knowing about assessing academic emotions is that such emotions are domain specific, meaning that not all subjects and fields are favoured by students in school and university contexts (Goetz et al., 2008). Having examined the interrelations of students' academic enjoyment, achievement, and self-concepts in two domains of mathematics and German language, Goetz et al. (2008) found that a student's level of enjoyment in a mathematics class is not necessarily similar and equal to that of a language class like German. Similarly, Goetz, Frenzel, Pekrun, Hall and Ludtke (2007) investigated the between-domain relations of emotions like enjoyment, pride, anxiety, anger, and boredom in four different domains, namely, mathematics, physics, German, and English classrooms. Based on their findings, the between-domain relations observed for these academic emotions were generally weak. They also found out that, in comparison with more different domains (e.g., mathematics and English), the relations between emotions experienced in similar subject domains (e.g., mathematics and physics) are stronger.
As stated earlier, not enough attention was given to emotions and affective factors in language learning until the rise of humanistic approach and teaching methodologies, such as Community Language Learning, Silent Way, and Suggestopedia (Mendez Lopez & Pea Aguilar, 2013). Pishghadam, Tabatabaeyan, and Navari (2013) held the view that emotion is one of the main factors in language teaching and learning. As Pishghadam and Zabihi (2012) stated, emotional ability is one of the indicators of improving the quality of life; thus, teaching should not focus merely on a specific subject or domain but should also include emotions. In this regard, Pishghadam (2011) claimed that English language classrooms can be a place for improving human abilities along with teaching and learning English. Keeping this in mind, Pishghadam, Adamson et al. (2013), who were inspired by Greenspan's (1992) Developmental Individual-Difference Relationship-Based model (DIR), came up with a novel approach to second language acquisition named Emotion-Based Language Instruction (EBLI), which is based on the fact that having stronger emotions toward second/foreign language vocabularies leads to a better understanding of them and facilitates learning. In other words, each individual may experience a different emotion when he/she is encountered with a word or concept in a language (Pishghadam & Shayesteh, in press). Hence, some words may be learned faster and easier because they have a higher level of emotioncy for learners (Pishghadam, Jajarmi & Shayesteh, in press; Pishghadam, Shayesteh & Rahmani, in press). In this regard, emotioncy refers to the degree of emotions one has toward language entities (Pishghadam, Adamson et al., 2013). According to Pishghadam (2015), "emotioncy ranges on a hierarchical order of null, auditory, visual, kinaesthetic, inner, and arch emotioncies" (p. 1). Based on this classification, higher levels of emotioncy (inner and arch) bring about higher levels of comprehension, learning, and retention because of involvement, i.e., they engage learners from inside, while lower levels of emotioncy (auditory, visual, kinaesthetic) lead to exvolvement because they engage learners from outside (Pishghadam, 2015). Recent studies have also found that even students' open and closed postures can bring about both positive and negative moods and emotions (Zabetipour, Pishghadam & Ghonsooly, 2015) leading to possible changes in EFL learners' perceptions of class activity (Zabetipour & Pishghadam, 2016), which may indicate that even students' postures need to be taken into account by language teachers.
Given that students' emotional states and learning are inextricably and deeply related to each other (Goleman, 1995), and bearing in mind that students' learning and motivation as well as teachers' performance can be affected by emotions (Meyer & Turner, 2007; Pekrun et al., 2002a), and also being mindful of the fact that affective states are regarded to have significant impact on language learning process (Gardner, 1985), it is worth looking for a way to assess and examine emotional states in English language classrooms. Thus, employing Pekrun et al.'s (2005) AEQ, this study aims to develop and validate a scale called EFL Skills Emotions Scale, and to measure the emotions EFL learners experience with regard to language skills.
Figure 1: The results of the CFA
In order to confirm the factor structure of the EFL Skills Emotions Scale found in EFA, CFA was used. As can be seen in Figure 1, a four-factor model of EFL Skills Emotions Scale with 20 items was specified. To examine the viability of the hypothesised model for the EFL Skills Emotions Scale, the goodness of fit measures in AMOS were checked.
|Acceptable range||< 3||> 90||< 0.08|
The goodness of fit indices used in this study were goodness of fit index (GFI), chi-square/degree of freedom (χ2/df), and root mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA). As MacCallum, Browne and Sugawara (1996) stated, there are some criteria by which a fit model is considered to be acceptable. In this regard, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI), and adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI), should be above .90, RMSEA should be less than .08, and χ2/df should be less than 3. Hence, based on the results presented in Table 2, all the goodness of fit indices were above the cut-off points indicating that the factor structure of the scale has been confirmed by the CFA.
|Anger. L||.4968||.81715||.047||Anxiety. L||.9416||.94980||.054|
|Anger. R||.2532||.59926||.034||Anxiety. R||.9675||1.08540||.062|
|Anger. S||.1883||.52020||.030||Anxiety. S||.8864||1.06012||.060|
|Anger. W||.3604||.81715||.054||Anxiety. W||.8279||1.07060||.061|
|Shame. L||.3994||.92006||.052||Enjoyment. L||1.7045||2.28585||1.705|
|Shame. R||.2338||.58529||.033||Enjoyment. R||2.3312||1.80681||2.331|
|Shame. S||.3442||.78155||.045||Enjoyment. S||3.1071||1.58932||3.107|
|Shame. W||.1883||.55062||.031||Enjoyment. W||1.6883||1.69890||1.688|
|Hope. L||.8344||1.16484||.834||Pride. L||.4026||.79509||.045|
|Hope. R||.1851||.47904||.185||Pride. R||.5487||1.03721||.059|
|Hope. S||.1266||.49117||.127||Pride. S||1.1591||1.33019||.076|
|Hope. W||.9870||1.26330||.987||Pride. W||.6494||1.04325||.059|
|Boredom. L||1.3312||1.56532||.089||Hopeless. L||.4091||.86264||.049|
|Boredom. R||.8279||1.28113||.073||Hopeless. R||.1851||.47904||.027|
|Boredom. S||.3279||.76970||.044||Hopeless. S||.1266||.49117||.028|
|Boredom. W||1.5455||1.69917||.097||Hopeless. W||.4935||1.01292||.058|
|* L: listening; R: reading; S: speaking; W: writing|
Anxiety was the only emotion that had been experienced extensively on all occasions. Table 3 shows that students' degree of anxiety does not vary across language skills. The results obtained regarding listening (M = .9416, SD = .94980), reading (M = .9675, SD = 1.08540), speaking (M = .8864, SD = 1.06012), and writing (M = .8279, SD = 1.07060) skills indicate how stress-provoking English language skills are for EFL learners. In addition, listening (M = .3994, SD = .92006) and speaking skills (M = .3442, SD = .78155) are better associated with shame, and as it was expected, the feeling of enjoyment was experienced more while students were working on the speaking skill (M = 3.1071, SD = 1.58932), though it was also high in relation to other skills. Lying at the other end of the continuum, reading (M = 2.3312, SD = 1.80681), writing (M = 1.6883, SD = 1.6883) and listening (M = 1.7045, SD = 2.28585) were less enjoyable for EFL learners in comparison with speaking.
|Type III sum|
As Table 4 presents, for instance, while there is a significant difference between the means of language skills regarding anxiety, no significant difference has been found between means of language skills with regard to enjoyment (F = 50.708, p < .05). Table 4 shows us that there is a significant difference somewhere between the means, except for anxiety (p = .246 > .05), but we do not know which means differ from the others; therefore, post-hoc tests needed to be carried out to determine which pairs of means differ from each other. The following sets of pairwise comparisons (see Table 5) indicate what the exact difference is between the means.
The pairwise comparisons for emotions in terms of language skills are presented in Table 5. This table indicates that in almost all cases, or in other words, in all pairs, except for anxiety, there is a significant difference (p < .05) between the effects each language skill has on emotions. For instance, in case of anger, there is a significant difference (p < .05) between all language skills except for reading and speaking (p = .89 > 0.05) indicating that these two language skills have the same impact on feeling of anger.
|Anger||L vs. R||.244*||.049||.000||Anxiety||L vs. S||.055||.072||.445|
|L vs. S||.308*||.043||.000||L vs. W||.114||.074||.128|
|L vs. W||.136*||.057||.018||R vs. L||.026||.074||.727|
|R vs. S||.065||.038||.089||R vs. S||.081||.068||.232|
|W vs. R||.107*||.050||.034||R vs. W||.140||.080||.083|
|W vs. S||.172*||.052||.001||S vs. W||.058||.077||.449|
|Shame||L vs. R||.166*||.045||.000||Enjoy-|
|L vs. W||.016||.155||.917|
|L vs. S||.055||.059||.347||R vs. L||.627*||.142||.000|
|L vs. W||.211*||.056||.000||R vs. W||.643*||.115||.000|
|R vs. W||.045||.038||.234||S vs. L||1.403*||.141||.000|
|S vs. R||.110*||.051||.032||S vs. R||.776*||.111||.000|
|S vs. W||.156*||.053||.003||S vs. W||1.419*||.130||.000|
|Hope||L vs. R||.649*||.069||.000||Pride||R vs. L||.146*||.064||.023|
|L vs. S||.708*||.071||.000||S vs. L||.756*||.079||.000|
|R vs. S||.058||.034||.086||S vs. R||.610*||.075||.000|
|W vs. L||.153||.087||.080||S vs. W||.510*||.084||.000|
|W vs. R||.802*||.078||.000||W vs. L||.247*||.070||.000|
|W vs. S||.860*||.076||.000||W vs. R||.101||.074||.176|
|Boredom||L vs. R||.503*||.103||.000||Hopeless-|
|L vs. R||.224*||.052||.000|
|L vs. S||1.003*||.096||.000||L vs. S||.282*||.045||.000|
|R vs. S||.500*||.076||.000||R vs. S||.058||.034||.086|
|W vs. L||.214||.110||.053||W vs. L||.084||.065||.197|
|W vs. R||.718*||.103||.000||W vs. R||.308*||.057||.000|
|W vs. S||1.218*||.103||.000||W vs. S||.367*||.057||.000|
|Based on estimated marginal means|
* The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.
b. Adjustment for multiple comparisons: Least significant difference (equivalent to no adjustments).
Concerning anxiety, the results indicate that there is no significant difference between language skills, meaning that anxiety is the only emotion which was equally experienced in all occasions and situations. With regard to shame, although there is a significant difference between listening and reading (p = .000 < .05), listening and writing (p = .000 < .05), speaking and reading (p = .032 < .05), and speaking and writing (p = 0.03 < .05), no significant difference was found between either listening and speaking (p = .347 > .05) or reading and writing (p = .234 > .05). This result indicates that the pair of listening and speaking and the pair of reading and writing have the same impacts on the feeling of shame.
Regarding enjoyment, except for listening and reading (p = .917 > .05), in all other pairs, there is a significant difference between language skills. Similarly, concerning pride, a significant difference was found between language skills in almost all comparisons made, except for only one case, writing and reading (p = .176 > .05). This table also indicates that concerning hope, there is no significant difference between reading and speaking (p = .086 > .05) and also writing and listening (p = .080 > .05). However, in all other cases, a significant difference was found.
With regard to boredom, as it was mentioned before, both writing and listening skills bring about boredom in EFL classrooms. Accordingly, as this table shows, there is no significant difference between writing and listening (p = .053 > .05) in the extent of boredom they cause. On the other hand, in all other cases, there is a significant difference between language skills. Finally, concerning hopefulness, except for only two pairs, namely, reading and speaking (p = .086 > .05), and also writing and reading (p = .197 > .05), there is a significant difference between all other pairs of skills.
Based on the findings, anxiety was the only emotion which was intensely engendered by all four English language skills. This finding is in harmony with the assertion made by Horwitz et al. (1986), who held the view that foreign language learning activates anxiety in EFL learners. In addition, this finding is in accord with previous studies that indicated anxiety might have negative impacts on both productive (e.g., Cheng, 2002; Daly & Wilson, 1983) and perceptive language skills (Bacon, 1989; Lund, 1991). Difficulty in speaking in front of the teacher and other classmates, listening to native or native-like accents in audio clips, and writing using accurate grammar and spelling, as well as reading texts and comprehending them accurately without making any mistakes may lead to fear of negative evaluation and thus bring about language anxiety. These facts highlight the significant role of language teachers as facilitators and counsellors, who should pay considerate attention to actual emotional needs of learners and offer solutions and suggestions for attaining confidence and calmness. In brief, the findings of the present study and also the previous ones (e.g., Cheng, 2002; Mahmoudzade, 2012) indicate that more attention should be given to language anxiety.
Based on the findings of this study, listening is the only English language skill which is associated with all of the negative emotions (e.g., anger, shame, boredom and hopelessness). Generally, frustration is one of the main causes of anger (Averill, 1983). Moreover, since listening is a complex process, which involves discriminating between unfamiliar sounds, understanding the meaning of words, and interpreting stress and intonation as well as the meaning in the immediate and sociocultural environment (Vandergrift, 1999), language learners may feel frustrated for this endless effort, which may lead to the feeling of anger. In addition, when they fail to utter what they had heard in the classroom, feelings of shame and hopelessness might be triggered. In fact, shame is triggered when one fails to meet important internalised goals, rules, or standards (Lewis, 1993). According to Turner and Waugh (2007), shame is "one of the most distressing and disruptive unpleasant emotions" (p. 131). Moreover, an interesting point observed in the findings of the study is that both opposite feelings of hope and hopelessness are engendered by the listening skill. Listening is the only skill which puts a heavy pressure on the learners' cognition to simultaneously entangle with decoding sounds, retaining information, considering grammatical features, and the speed of sounds (Walker, 2014). Generally, when the focus is on finding the right answers to the follow-up questions in the listening tasks, students will feel hopeless if they fail to answer correctly. Generally, hopelessness is posited to occur whenever success or a positive satisfying achievement outcome is not attainable (Pekrun et al., 2007). Moreover, hope is considered to be a positive outcome-focused emotion while hopelessness is a negative outcome-focused emotion (Elliot & Pekrun, 2007). Assuming this, language teachers need not focus merely on the product, meaning that adequate attention should also be given to the process of learning. When the focus is on the product/outcome rather than the process, students' final performance is only judged, which may bring about a feeling of hope or hopelessness.
Moreover, the findings showed that listening is also associated with boredom. Pekrun et al. (2007) pointed out that boredom is induced when students do not find any negative or positive value in the activity they are doing. Moreover, due to the fact that listening is regarded as the most difficult skill to learn (Vandergrift, 2004), and that language learners find it difficult to grasp and utter what they have heard, they may not find any positive value in listening activities and then feel bored. Moreover, language learners are not able to see the speaker and the environment when they are listening to audio files. Hence, video clips can be regarded as "a very valuable tool for language learning" (Woottipong, 2014, p. 203) because they provide contextual information and an environment helping language learners improve their listening comprehension and confidence in speech (Shrosbree, 2008).
Unlike other language skills, feelings of enjoyment and pride are mostly triggered by the speaking skill. The findings also indicate that, in comparison with other language skills, speaking brings about the least amount of boredom and hopelessness in language classrooms. Generally, emotional states can influence thinking, meaning that students can perform and learn better when they feel happy, interested, and excited about the task they are to do (Oatley & Nundy, 1996). Thus, the fact that speaking is the most enjoyable skill for language learners can be related to their probable interest in speaking. In the same vein, positive activating emotions like enjoyment can broaden thought-action repertoires leading to creative and novel thoughts and ideas (Fredrickson, 1998), which are particularly useful in speaking.
In contrast to speaking, writing is associated with a higher extent of negative unpleasant emotions like boredom, hopelessness, and anger in language learners. This finding accords with the assertion Brookes (2010) made arguing that boredom is mostly associated with writing. As mentioned earlier, according to Pekrun et al. (2007), boredom is induced when students do not find any negative or positive value in the activity they are doing. In other words, when students are faced with either a low or a high-demand activity, they experience boredom (Pekrun et al., 2007). In addition, Pekrun et al. (2007) took the stance that hopelessness arises from negative achievement outcomes or when "a positive achievement outcome cannot be attained" (p. 19). Keeping these in mind, with regard to writing, for one thing, feeling negative emotions may be due to the fact that there is little mutual engagement in writing, and that in most of the cases, EFL learners need to do the writing tasks on their own, while the intensity of mutual engagement in speaking and conversations is greater, which leads to a more enjoyable atmosphere. In this regard, Brookes (2010) advanced the view that if students understand that there is mutual engagement in the writing skill, they become more enthusiastic and will be less likely to experience boredom. Secondly, although students' emotional states and feelings as well as their state of mind can be discovered through writing (Brookes, 2010), encoding thoughts and feelings seem to be an overwhelming task for language learners.
Concerning reading skill, the findings of the study indicate that reading can be considered as a neutral skill in engendering negative or positive emotions. In contrast, Moore (1993) pointed out that for science students reading is both boring and overly time-consuming. However, as mentioned earlier, academic settings are highly domain-specific. That is to say, for instance, a student's level of boredom in a science class is not necessarily similar and equal to that of an English language class. Moreover, this study showed that reading does not bring about boredom as much as listening and writing skills do. This can be, firstly, due to the fact that reading sections of language learning books taught in Iran, in most of the cases, include stories about real life events, outstanding celebrities, and famous tourist attractions, which make learners become more interested. Secondly, language learners are often provided with visual elements (i.e., photos) in reading comprehension sections, and thus, can understand the texts more easily.
In summary, considering the significant impact of affective factors on language learning (Gardner & Lambert, 1972), and based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that it is essential to help students manage, regulate, and control their emotions and feelings in language classrooms. Based on the principles of Suggestopedia, which is defined as "the application of suggestion to pedagogy" (Bancroft, 1999, p. 16), most learning happens in a both relaxed and focused state (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). Suggestopedia was originally developed in the 1970s by Lozanov, whose aim was to provide a positive state of mind and environment, where language learners would overcome psychological obstacles through positive suggestion (Guclu & Ayhan, 2015). Thus, language teachers need to take into account the possible impacts of language skills on learners' emotions, and consider every aspect or factor which can affect and manipulate learners' emotions in order to create a positive state of mind and secure environment for the development of optimal learning of their students.
This can be done by encouraging students to express their feelings and talk about their learning worries while they are doing tasks related to each language skill. Moreover, making use of visual elements (e.g. video clips) that include contextual information for listening tasks, and promoting mutual engagement while learners are doing writing tasks may have positive impacts on their performance and reduce negative emotions like boredom. Future research however, can be conducted to measure the emotions engendered by language sub-skills, i.e., grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. In addition, further studies can be done to draw a comparison between male and female language learners and investigate the type of emotions they experience regarding language skills. Furthermore, the relationship between EFL learners' emotional intelligence and the emotions they experience in English language classrooms can be explored in future studies.
Averill, J. R. (1983). Studies on anger and aggression: Implications for theories of emotion. American Psychologist, 38(11), 1145-1160. http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0003-066X.38.11.1145
Bacon, S. (1989). Listening for real in the second language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 22(6), 543-551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1989.tb02781.x
Bancroft, W. J. (1999). Suggestopedia and language acquisition: Variations on a theme. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers.
Brookes, G. (2010). Boredom in a writing class. Journal of Teaching Writing, 12(2), 145-160. https://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/teachingwriting/article/view/1149/1109
Brown, H. D. (1994). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
Cheng, Y. (2002). Factors associated with foreign language writing anxiety. Foreign Language Annals, 35(6), 647-656. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2002.tb01903.x
Daly, J. A. & Wilson, D. A. (1983). Writing apprehension, self-esteem, and personality. Research in the Teaching of English, 17(4), 327-341. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40170968
Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). Doing what matters most: Investing in quality teaching. New York: National Commission on Teaching & America's Future. http://nctaf.org/wp-content/uploads/DoingWhatMattersMost.pdf
Elliot, A. J. & Pekrun, R. (2007). Emotion in the hierarchical model of approach-avoidance achievement motivation. In P. A. Schutz, & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 57-73). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Febrilia, I., Warokka, A., & Abdullah, H. H. (2011). University students' emotional state and academic performance: New insights of managing complex cognitive. Journal of e-Learning and Higher Education, 2011, Article ID 879553. http://dx.doi.org/10.5171/2011.879553
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 300-319. http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/1089-26220.127.116.110
Fried, L. (2011). Teaching teachers about emotion regulation in the classroom. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(3), 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2011v36n3.1
Gardner, R. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. UK: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
Goetz, T., Frenzel, C. A., Hall, N. C. & Pekrun, R. (2008). Antecedents of academic emotions: Testing the internal/external frame of reference model for academic enjoyment. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(1), 9-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.12.002
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Greenspan, S. I. (1992). Infancy and early childhood: The practice of clinical assessment and intervention with emotional and developmental challenges. Madison, CT: International Universities Press
Guclu, B., & Ayhan, M. S. (2015). Suggestopedia in Turkish language for foreigners: Georgian in practice: Georgia. International Journal of Educational Research and Technology, 6(1), 105-108. http://soeagra.com/ijert/ijertmarch2015/12.pdf
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B. & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05256.x
Imai, Y. (2010). Emotions in SLA: New insights from collaborative learning for an EFL classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 94(2), 278-292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01021.x
Isen, A. M. & Patrick, R. (1983). The effect of positive feelings on risk-taking: When the chips are down. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 31(2), 194-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(83)90120-4
Ismail, N. M. (2015). EFL Saudi students' class emotions and their contributions to their English achievement at Taif University. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 7(4), 19-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v7n4p19
Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Lewis, M. (1993). Self-conscious emotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 563-573). New York: Guilford Press.
Linnenbrink, E. A. (Ed.). (2006). Emotion research in education: Theoretical and methodological perspectives on the integration of affect, motivation, and cognition. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 307-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9028-x
Lund, R. J. (1991). A comparison of second language listening and reading comprehension. Modern Language Journal, 75(2), 196-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1991.tb05350.x
MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W. & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130-149. http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/1082-989X.1.2.130
MacIntyre, P. D. & Gregersen, T. (2012). Affect: The role of language anxiety and other emotions in language learning. In S. Mercer, S. Ryan & M. Williams (Eds.), Language learning psychology: Research, theory and pedagogy (pp. 103-118). Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Mahmoudzadeh, M. (2012). Investigating foreign language speaking anxiety within the EFL learner's interlanguage system: The case of Iranian learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(3), 466-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.4304/jltr.3.3.466-476
Mndez Lopez, M. G. & Pea Aguilar, A. P. (2013). Emotions as learning enhancers of foreign language learning motivation. Profile, 15(1), 109-124. http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/prf/v15n1/v15n1a08.pdf
Meyer, D. K. & Turner, J. C. (2007). Scaffolding emotions in classrooms. In P. A. Schutz, & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 243-258). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Moore, R. (1993). Does writing about science improve learning about science? Journal of College Science Teaching, 22(4), 212-217. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42987797
Oatley, K. & Nundy, S. (1996). Rethinking the role of emotions in education. In D. R. Olson & N. Torrance (Eds.), The handbook of education and human development: New models of learning, teaching and schooling (pp. 257-274). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Otto, J., Euler, H. A. & Mandl, H. (Eds.) (2000). Emotionspsychologie [Psychology of emotions]. Weinheim: Beltz, Psychologie Verlags Union.
Parkinson, B., Totterdell, P., Briner, R. B. & Reynolds, S. (1996). Changing moods: The psychology of mood and mood regulation. London: Longman.
Parrott, W. G. (2001). The nature of emotion. In A. Tesser & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intraindividual processes. (pp. 375-390). England: Blackwell.
Peyman, S. & Sedighi, F. (2011). The relationship between Iranian EFL learners' stress and their reading comprehension. Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 15(1), 67-90. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ939941.pdf
Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 315-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9
Pekrun, R. (2014). Emotions and learning. France: Gonnet Imprimeur.
Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2005). Academic emotions questionnaire (AEQ). User's manual. Department of Psychology, University of Munich.
Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W. & Perry, R. P. (2002a). Academic emotions in students' self regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 91-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3702_4
Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W. & Perry, R. P. (2002b). Positive emotions in education. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions, and challenges (pp. 149-174). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Pekrun, R., Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T. & Perry, R. P. (2007). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: An integrative approach to emotions in education. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 13-36). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Phillips, L. H., Bull, R., Adams, E. & Fraser, L. (2002). Positive mood and executive function: Evidence from Stroop and fluency tasks. Emotion, 2(1), 12-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-3518.104.22.168
Pishghadam, R. (2009). A quantitative analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and foreign language learning. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6(1), 31-41. http://e-flt.nus.edu.sg/v6n12009/pishghadam.pdf
Pishghadam, R. (2011). Introducing applied ELT as a new approach in second/foreign language studies. Iranian EFL Journal, 7(2), 8-14. http://iranian-efl-journal.com/372/2011/2014/02/introducing-applied-elt-as-a-new-approach-in-second-foreign-language-studies/
Pishghadam, R. (2015). Emotioncy in language education: From exvolvement to involvement. Paper presented at 2nd conference of Interdisciplinary Approach to Language Teaching, Literature, and Translation Studies. Iran, Mashhad. http://profdoc.um.ac.ir/paper-abstract-1050108.html
Pishghadam, R., Adamson, B. & Shayesteh, S. (2013). Emotion-based language instruction (EBLI) as a new perspective in bilingual education. Multilingual Education, 3(9), 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2191-5059-3-9
Pishghadam, R., Jajarmi, H. & Shayesteh, S. (in press). Conceptualizing sensory relativism in light of emotioncy: A movement beyond linguistic relativism. International Journal of Society, Culture & Language. http://www.ijscl.net/article_17611.html
Pishghadam, R., & Shayesteh, S. (in press). Emotioncy: A post-linguistic approach toward vocabulary learning and retention. Sri Lanka Journal of Social Sciences.
Pishghadam, R., Shayesteh, S. & Rahmani, S. (2016). Contextualization emotionalization interface: A case of teacher effectiveness. International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences, 5(2), 97-127. http://hipatiapress.com/hpjournals/index.php/rimcis/article/view/1907
Pishghadam, R., Tabatabaeyan, M. S. & Navari, S. (2013). A critical and practical analysis of first language acquisition theories: The origin and development. Iran, Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications.
Pishghadam, R. & Zabihi, R. (2012). Establishing a life-language model of proficiency: A new challenge for language testers. Iranian Journal of Language Testing, 2(2), 93-108. http://profdoc.um.ac.ir/paper-abstract-1030615.html
Richards, J. & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rust, D. A. (2014). Relationship between the emotional intelligence of teachers and student academic achievement (Published dissertation). Theses and Dissertations - Educational Leadership Studies, University of Kentucky, Lexington. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=edl_etds
Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A. & Johnstone, T. (Eds.) (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Schutz, P. A. & Lanehart, S. L. (Eds.) (2002). Introduction: Emotions in education. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 67-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3702_1
Schutz, P. A., & Pekrun, R. (Eds.). (2007). Emotion in education. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
Sellers, V. D. (2000). Anxiety and reading comprehension in Spanish as a foreign language. Foreign Language Annals, 33(5), 512-520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2000.tb01995.x
Shrosbree, M. (2008). Digital video in the language classroom. The JALT CALL Journal, 4(1), 75-84. http://journal.jaltcall.org/articles/4_1_Shrosbree.pdf
Spielmann, G. & Radnofsky, M. L. (2001). Learning language under tension: New directions from a qualitative study. The Modern Language Journal, 85(2), 259-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00108
Turner, J. E. & Waugh, R. M. (2007). A dynamical systems perspective regarding students' learning processes: Shame reactions and emergent self-organizations. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 125-145). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Vandergrift, L. (1999). Facilitating second language listening comprehension: Acquiring successful strategies. ELT Journal, 53(3), 168-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/elt/53.3.168
Vandergrift, L. (2004). Listening to learn or learning to listen? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 3-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0267190504000017
Walker, N. (2014). Listening: The most difficult skill to teach. Encuentro, 23, 167-175. http://www.encuentrojournal.org/textos/Walker_LISTENING%20.pdf
Woottipong, K. (2014). Effect of using video materials in the teaching of listening skills for university students. International Journal of Linguistics, 6(4), 200-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v6i4.5870
Ykselir, C. (2014). An analysis of the perceptions on academic emotions and emotional experiences in English language teaching. International Journal of English Language Education, 2(2), 269-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/ijele.v2i2.6617
Zabetipour, M. & Pishghadam, R. (2016). The impacts of open and closed postures on EFL learners' perceptions of class activity. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, Special Issue of April. http://www.ijhcs.com/index.php/ijhcs/article/view/566
Zabetipour, M., Pishghadam, R. & Ghonsooly, B. (2015). The impacts of open/closed body positions and postures on learners' moods. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 643-655. http://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/6002/5773
Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: The state of the art. New York: Plenum.
|1.||What emotion/s do you have when your English language teacher is teaching reading skill?|
|2.||What emotion/s do you have when you are doing reading skill tasks?|
|3.||What emotion/s do you have when you are taking a reading skill test?|
|4.||What emotion/s do you have to the teaching method of reading skill?|
|5.||What emotion/s do you have to the reading skill section of the English language book?|
|Authors: Dr Reza Pishghadam is a professor of language education and a professor by courtesy of educational psychology in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Over the last nine years, he has published more than 170 articles and books in different domains of psychology and English language education, and has participated in more than 20 national and international conferences. In 2007, he was selected to become a member of Iran's National Foundation of Elites. In 2010, he was classified as the distinguished researcher of humanities in Iran. In 2014, he also received the distinguished professor award from Ferdowsi Academic Foundation, Iran. He is the corresponding author for this article.|
Mohammad Zabetipour is a PhD candidate in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. He received his master's degree in TEFL from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, and his bachelor's degree in English Translation from Islamic Azad University, Quchan Branch. His research interests include nonverbal communication and its relationship to language teaching and learning, and psycholinguistics. Email: email@example.com
Afrooz Aminzadeh obtained her BA in TEFL from Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Iran in 2007. She received her MA in TEFL from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. She received the Six Seconds' EQ certification [http://www.6seconds.org/pdf/EQ-Certification.pdf] in May 2015. She is currently the only Iranian EQ practitioner who is licensed to use the Six Seconds EQ model. Her main research interests are psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics.
Please cite as: Pishghadam, R., Zabetipour, M. & Aminzade, A. (2016). Examining emotions in English language learning classes: A case of EFL emotions. Issues in Educational Research, 26(3), 508-527. http://www.iier.org.au/iier26/pishghadam-2.html