The development of lecturer research expertise: Towards a unifying model
Brian Hemmings and Doug Hill
Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga Campus
The authors of this paper discuss selected literature pertaining to the development of research expertise in university lecturers. Subsequent to this discussion, the authors argue that a model is required to pull together the disparate parts of the literature. They propose that this unifying model draw on three key elements or facets: selective affinity, maximal grip, and at the edge of chaos. These facets are aligned with three broad dimensions of giftedness (namely functional, temporal and developmental) as described by Dai and Renzulli (2008) in the context of the development of gifted individuals. The authors conclude the paper by showing illustrations of the unifying model and noting implications for further investigation, theorising, and practice.
While quality research is highly esteemed within the academic world, day-to-day satisfaction in teaching and service may be perceived by new lecturers with substantial teaching workloads as their (short-term) career priority and, hence, more important than (long-term) research output. Arguably, what is needed is a model which helps to interpret these multiple dimensions and constraints in a meaningful way. As a starting point, the authors of this paper have chosen to focus on the development of research expertise. Accordingly, their aim is to draw together the selected literature relating to the development of research expertise in university lecturers and to propose a unifying model which accounts for this development. Such a model has the potential to guide the management of newly appointed lecturing staff during the transition of the junior staff from novice to expert. This management process is critical for senior university managers who have the task of creating a work environment which favours the productive use of talent along with the well-being and retention of staff.
A study by Hemmings and Kay (2008) focusing on lecturer self-efficacy covers similar developmental issues. The investigation was based on survey data from lecturers employed at two large Australian universities with a useable sample of 357. A survey was used to obtain responses to questions framed around the core work of lecturers. Some of the survey data were subjected to factor analysis, resulting in the identification of four research factors, two teaching factors, and two service factors. The research factors were labelled as follows: 1) reporting and supervising research; 2) skills related to the conduct and management of research; 3) writing major works and reviewing articles/books; and 4) having a broad view of a research area.
A proportion of lecturers in their early years in academe gravitate strongly towards research, whereas some are more attracted to other areas of academic work, namely, teaching and service (see, for example, Bellas & Toutkoushian, 1999; Blackburn, Bieber, Lawrence, & Trautvetter, 1991; Debowski, 2006; Lucas & Turner, 2007). The research by Hemmings and Kay, mentioned above, identifies two groups of lecturer: those with refereed publications and those without. Subsequent analyses, contrasting these two groups, showed that those who had not made the shift to an independent researcher, at the time of the survey, lacked confidence in their ability to perform a set of tasks related to the conduct and publication of research. Univariate tests revealed significant differences (p<.001) between the two groups for such tasks as reviewing literature for research projects, gathering data, analysing research results, delivering research findings at staff seminars, and attending research conferences. This finding is consistent with the results reported by Hemmings and Kay (2007) that demonstrated those who research and publish, compared with those who do not, have higher levels of confidence and are more likely to hold higher academic qualifications and be in more senior academic appointments.
Major and Dolly (2003) provide an account, based on interview data, of the development of lecturer research expertise in a North American tertiary institution. They highlighted the importance of context, organisational culture, support by mentors and other experts, previous and new training, and the opportunities to engage in research in a low threat environment. These findings reflect the perceived barriers faced by lecturers, particularly in an early career stage. Hemmings, Rushbrook, and Smith (2007), writing within an Australian context, recognised similar barriers if lecturers were wishing to conduct and publish research. The barriers they identified included workload, lack of support, and an under-developed research culture. Interestingly, the study considered a range of intrinsic and extrinsic personal factors and their interaction with gender. It was found that personal characteristics, opportunities, supports, issues relating to time and time management, and training influenced motivation to engage in research and subsequent publishing. For example, female lecturers were largely influenced by extrinsic rewards such as grant funding and the importance of being seen as a known publisher. Furthermore, female lecturers tended to give greater prominence to a work-life balance. On the other hand, males attributed more social significance to their work environment compared with their female counterparts. That is, being part of a vibrant research group was perceived as contributing to personal well-being.
The authors of this paper reviewed a number of models which incorporate the key concepts described in the paragraph above. One model which addressed these concepts and aspects 1 to 5 noted above had been developed by Dai and Renzulli (2008) who proposed a model for the development of gifted and talented individuals. These authorities in the field of giftedness drew primarily on the work of Libbrecht (2004) to construct a model with three basic dimensions, namely functional, temporal, and developmental. The functional dimension "refers to the person-environment functional relations and the nature of an individual as an open, self-directed, adaptive system, constantly exchanging energy and information with its environment, capable of changing itself as well as its environment" (Dai & Renzulli, 2008, p.115). A temporal dimension is characterised by behaviours that have a time perspective, that is, a perspective or trajectory that recognises an evolution from a past state to a future state. Finally, a developmental dimension is contingent upon the individual interacting with, and understanding, his or her environment over time. Or, in other words, development incorporates qualitative changes which occur as a consequence of ongoing person-environment interactions.
Dai and Renzulli (2008) claim that the three dimensions are underpinned by five tenets or organising principles: flexible agency, differential development, self-organisation and temporal emergence, self-directedness, and balancing stability and instability. These principles emphasise the importance of individual creativity, self-regulation, different pathways to development, and emerging competence and complexity. According to Dai and Renzulli (2008), the development of gifted individuals can be explained in terms of three dynamic facets which are critical in determining the level achieved. Together these facets, namely, selective affinity, maximal grip, and at the edge of chaos, are central to the basic dimensions and provide a working account of the organising principles. Selective affinity refers to an individual's preference for participating in specific kinds of activity. The preferences change as a result of experience, level of performance, feedback from self and others, and environmental fit. The second key facet, maximal grip, is concerned with adapting to and taking charge of particular actions, ideas, and attributes associated with growing mastery. It "includes seeking outer resources such as enlisting social and technical support as well as seeking opportunities and learning experiences to enhance competence and optimal development" (Dai & Renzulli, 2008, p.119). The third and final facet, at the edge of chaos, deals with the capacity to manage balancing competing tensions arising from the known and unknown, generating innovative ideas, as well as tolerating and resolving issues and dilemmas.
The mean IQ of persons completing a PhD is in the range normally associated with intellectual giftedness (Matarazzo, 1972). Most elite researchers have attained a PhD or the equivalent. Arguing by analogy, the Dai and Renzulli (2008) conceptualisation of the development of giftedness is appropriate for explaining the ongoing growth of research expertise in university lecturers. A test of this claim could include an examination of the extent to which the facets apply to university lecturers employed with a research classification.
To be credible, a unifying model would need to give guidance in the way the three facets of development may be influenced and predictive of the subsequent outcomes. To expand, a researcher is likely to need to have an abiding interest in a field and apply his or her research skills to that field in a sustained fashion (previously referred to as selective affinity). A developing university lecturer has to make a decision about how that interest and capability will be exploited. Commonly, lecturers in early career stages make a decision about whether, and to what extent, and in what manner, to direct their effort primarily towards teaching, research, service, or a combination of these activities under highly constrained conditions. This decision will be affected by the other two facets.
The second facet, maximal grip, influences development in a range of ways. For example, post-doctoral work in a well-regarded research team not only provides the individual with both expertise and confidence, but also directs his or her attention to research. Likewise, mentoring from an independent researcher and engaging in activities with a wider research community, will heighten the importance of, and proficiency in, research in the university context. The third facet, at the edge of chaos, is an overarching one in that intellectual rigour and critical reflection interact with success in research. This interaction may promote further engagement with complexity or deter the individual from cutting-edge or near cutting-edge research where such thinking may require long periods of incubation.
Figure 1: The proposed unified model of the development of lecturer research expertise
Figure 2 shows the hypothetical developmental trajectories for three lecturers over the same period of time. Within the cube, developmental growth is represented by the real length of the trajectory. Trajectory A corresponds to a 'gifted' researcher who develops evenly on all three facets to a high level. Trajectory B shows the development of a researcher with maximal grip increasing to a greater extent than on the other two facets. In reality, this individual is likely to conduct more conventional research and publish in journals of lower rank. Trajectory C is a relatively common pathway for a lecturer who does not develop as a researcher but maintains an interest in his or her field. Typically, this lecturer will draw on research findings in his or her teaching and engage in professional and service activities. From the reader's own experience, he or she could probably draw a number of other typical trajectories.
Figure 2: Examples of lecturer trajectories
It needs to be noted that all three trajectories have been drawn with the same origin for purposes of simplicity. In reality, lecturers may differ considerably at the point of entry.
The actual entry point and ongoing trajectory, for any lecturer, is dependent on his or her initial training, early support and availability of developmental activities, opportunities and successes, and decisions made by others. The lecturer's personal circumstances and capacities intersect with these factors to determine the course of the trajectory. Such a trajectory would accord with the five tenets or organising principles described by Dai and Renzulli (2008).
The implications of the unifying model will be discussed in terms of further investigation, theorising, and practice. Future studies might involve a series of quantitative studies taking measures of the three facets and using both the quality and quantity of research publications as the dependent variables. It would be particularly interesting to conduct such research at various points in the career trajectory of university lecturers who engage in research. In operationalising the independent variables, it should be recognised that the facets of development are not abilities per se but rather preferences in the way in which the individual's abilities are used. It would also be important to investigate the relationship between research and the other two broad dimensions of university work, namely, teaching and service. Complementary qualitative studies could reveal the ways individuals interact with their respective university environments and tasks associated with research, teaching, and service. These studies would need to be undertaken in a range of disciplines to capture the variations in organisation, culture, and unique features of the disciplines.
From a theoretical perspective, the model needs not only to be descriptive, explanatory, and predictive, but also needs to incorporate critical factors that are related to the university environment. For example, selective affinity is concerned with maintaining interest in, and engagement with, the research process and the research field while executing other required tasks. The decision to devote time and energy to research is influenced by factors such as the research culture, peer group, expectations of supervisors about other tasks, advice from mentors, school and faculty priorities, and reward schemes. These factors have been identified by Hemmings et al. (2007). Factors such as these may be important in the model because the original conceptualisation by Dai and Renzulli (2008), on which the unifying model is based, was concerned primarily with the intellectual development of persons younger than university lecturers.
Another aspect of lecturer career development may need to be considered. According to LaRocco and Bruns (2006), significant numbers of professionals move into universities without the background normally associated with a research-based higher degree, and therefore have not experienced a research apprenticeship. In many Australian universities, such academics may enter at a relatively senior level, because of their professional and experiences and recognition, and not feel that research training is either necessary or appropriate.
As reported by Debowski (2006), little is known about the research leader or the elite researcher and the factors that contribute to their development. The paragraphs that follow seek to address the broader and practical issues of career development in researchers among university lecturers and the means by which university managers can institute programs to support and develop research expertise.
University managers need to recruit, develop, and retain lecturers with a high level of research activity. Watty, Bellamy, and Morley (2008) pointed out the importance of job satisfaction, being part of a community of scholars, and having relative autonomy and flexibility in the way they work. These same researchers also highlighted that committed researchers give higher priority to research than their other work-related tasks. Similarly, committed teachers demonstrate a stronger affiliation to teaching than other tasks. University managers would benefit from a more thorough appreciation and understanding of the factors that influence such career decisions. The unifying model has the potential to address this matter.
Hugo (2005) considered the issue of recruitment, retention, and return of university lecturers in an environment characterised by an ageing work force and an increasing rate of staff attrition. He suggested a number of actions that address these staffing issues, including early recognition of new talent, incentives for 'high fliers', bringing back former research leaders, and better promotional opportunities for key researchers. The model, when fully explicated, could assist in planning such actions.
It can be inferred from the model that a range of enhancing strategies could be employed at the department, school or faculty level. These strategies include:
The model is particularly useful in directing attention to the need to assist lecturers to achieve an appropriate balance among research, teaching, and research. In addition, the model highlights the need for lecturers to be exposed to a set of developmental activities and meet the challenge of creating new knowledge that will enhance both their own status and that of their university.
Baron, H. (2000). Riding the crest of a trough: The commitment of academics in mass higher education. Teacher Development, 4(1), 145-160.
Bazeley, P. (2003). Defining early career in research. Higher Education, 45(3), 257-279.
Bellas, M.L. & Toutkoushian, R.K. (1999). Faculty time allocations and research productivity. The Review of Higher Education, 22(4), 367-390.
Blackburn, R.T., Bieber, J.P., Lawrence, J.H. & Trautvetter, L. (1991). Faculty at work: Focus on research, scholarship, and service. Research in Higher Education, 32(4), 385-413.
Blackmore, J. & Sachs, J. (2007). Performing and reforming leaders: Gender, educational restructuring, and organizational change. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, P.A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In R.M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1 Theoretical models of human development (6th ed. pp. 793-828 ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cairns, R.B. (2000). Developmental science: Three audacious implications. In L.R. Bergman, R.B. Cairns, L.G. Nilsson, & L. Nystedt (Eds.), Developmental science and the holistic approach (pp. 49-62). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Collins, W.A. & van Dulmen, M. (2006). Friendships and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood: Continuities and discontinuities. In J.J. Arnett & J. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 219-234). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Dai, D.Y. & Renzulli, J.S. (2008). Snowflakes, living systems, and the mystery of giftedness. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52(2), 114-130.
Dalton, G.W., Thompson, P.H. & Price, R.L. (1977). The four stages of professional careers - A new look at performance by professionals. Organizational Dynamics, 6, 19-42.
Debowski, S. (2006, July). Critical times: An exploration of recent evaluations of researcher development needs. Paper presented at the HERDSA Conference, Perth, Australia. http://www.herdsa.org.au/wp-content/uploads/conference/2006/Debowski-S.PDF
Gariépy, J.L. (1996). The question of continuity and change in development. In R.B. Cairns, G.H. Elder, & E.J. Costello (Eds.), Developmental science (pp. 78-96). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Goodyear, P. (2006, November). Educational research: Quality, impact and funding. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Adelaide, Australia.
Graber, J.A., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Warren, M.P. (2006). Pubertal effects on adjustment in girls: Moving from demonstrating effects to identifying pathways. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 391-401.
Hemmings, B. & Kay, R. (2007, June). I'm sure I can write! Writing confidence and other factors which influence academic output. Paper presented at the European College Teaching and Learning Conference, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Hemmings, B, & Kay, R. (2008, December). Lecturer self-efficacy, research skills, and publication output. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Brisbane, Australia. http://www.aare.edu.au/08pap/hem08131.pdf
Hemmings, B., Rushbrook, P. & Smith, E. (2007). Academics' views on publishing refereed works: A content analysis. Higher Education, 54(2), 307-332.
Hugo, G. (2005). Demographic trends in Australia's academic workforce. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 27(3), 327-343.
LaRocco, D.J. & Bruns, D.A. (2006). Practitioner to professor: An examination of second career academics' entry into academia. Education, 126(4), 626-639.
Laudel, G. & Gläser, J. (2008). From apprentice to colleague: The metamorphosis of early career researchers. Higher Education, 55(2), 387-406.
Libbrecht, K. (2004). Snowflake science. American Educator, Winter, 20-25, 48. (Originally in The snowflakes: Winter's secret beauty, 2003, Voyageur). http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/winter04-05/Snowflake.pdf
Lucas, L. & Turner, N. (2007, April). Early career academics and their perceptions and experiences of linking research and teaching. Paper delivered at the Colloquium on International policies and Practices for Academic Enquiry, Winchester, England. http://portal-live.solent.ac.uk/university/rtconference/2007/resources/lucas%20and%20turner%20paper.pdf
Major, C.H. & Dolly, J.P. (2003). The importance of graduate program experiences to faculty self-efficacy for academic tasks. The Journal of Faculty Development, 19(2), 89-100.
Matarazzo, J.D. (1972). Wechsler's measure and appraisal of adult intelligence (5th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.
McLoyd, V.C. (1998). Children in poverty. In I.E. Siegel & K.A. Renninger (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4 Child psychology in practice (5th ed., pp. 135-208). New York, Wiley.
Munakata, Y. (2006). Information processing approaches to development. In D. Kuhn & R.S. Siegler (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 2 Cognition, perception, and language (6th ed., pp. 426-463). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Powell, D.R. (2006). Families and early childhood interventions. In K.A Renninger & I.E Siegel (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4 Child psychology in practice (6th ed., pp. 548-591). New York: Wiley.
Rutter, M. (2002). Nature, nurture, and development: From evangelism through science toward policy and practice. Child Development, 73(1), 1-21.
Shiner, R.L. (2005). A developmental perspective on personality disorders: Lessons from research on normal personality in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19(6), 202-210.
Shiraev, E. & Levy, D. (2007). Cross-cultural psychology (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Spencer, J.P. & Schöner, G. (2003). Bridging the representational gap in the dynamic systems approach to development. Developmental Science, 6(4), 392-412.
Watty, K., Bellamy, S. & Morley, C. (2008). Changes in higher education and valuing the job: The views of accounting academics in Australia. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 30(2), 139-151.
Yates, L. (2005). Is impact a measure of quality? Some reflections on the research quality and impact assessment agendas. European Educational Research Journal, 4(4), 391-403.
|Authors: Dr Brian Hemmings is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Education, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr Doug Hill is a former Associate Professor in the School of Education, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga. He is currently working part-time with CSU Training. Email: email@example.com
Please cite as: Hemmings, B. & Hill, D. (2009). The development of lecturer research expertise: Towards a unifying model. Issues In Educational Research, 19(1), 14-24. http://www.iier.org.au/iier19/hemmings1.html