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Issues in Educational Research, 2014, Vol 24(2), 133-151
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A meta-analysis: Exploring the effects of gender on organisational commitment of teachers

Gülay Dalgıç
Victoria University of Wellington and Bahçeşehir University

The consequences of organisational commitment (OC) are of great importance to organisations. Considering the effect of teacher commitment on student success and the increasing teacher turnover rates in the world, studies focusing on the organisational commitment of teachers gained more importance. However there is still a significant gap about the demographic and other factors that affect teachers' organisational commitment. This meta-analysis examines the relation between gender and organisational commitment of teachers. The relation was investigated as overall and in sub-dimensions of organisational commitment: affective, continuance and normative organisational commitment. 33 studies that use the Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment scale and which were carried out between 2000-2014 were used in the study. The sample included 11,690 teachers (female 6,232, male 5,458). Although the mean effect sizes for overall, affective, continuance and normative OC show that the effect of gender on the organisational commitment of teachers is in favour of females, the results highlight that gender is not a significant variable in determining teachers' level of organisational commitment.


Introduction

The speculations regarding the role of commitment to organisations have led to considerable research being conducted. The consequences of organisational commitment are of great importance to organisations. Probably the main reason behind this extensive research interest in organisational commitment lies in the assumption that employees who feel attached to their organisations work harder and have higher performance (Celep, 2000; Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Meyer & Allen, 1997; Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982; Riketta, 2002). According to its most often cited definition, organisational commitment can be defined as a "psychological state that binds the individual to the organisation" (Allen & Meyer, 1990). Organisations can benefit from their employees' organisational commitment in terms of lower absenteeism and turnover (Joiner & Bakalis, 2006), and higher productivity and work quality (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990).

Allen and Meyer (1990) theorised three distinct components of organisational commitment that maintain the employees' membership in an organisation: (a) affective commitment - a desire, (b) continuance commitment - a need, and (c) normative commitment - an obligation. It is noted that the extent of those three forms of organisational commitment rely on employees' motivation for growth and self-actualisation in the organisation. Over the past 40 years, the phenomenon of organisational commitment has been investigated in a variety of contexts in relation to some other variables and possible antecedents. There are many meta-analyses in the literature seeking to establish for the relationship between organisational commitment and antecedents, correlates and consequences (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch & Topolnystsky, 2002); turnover (Cohen, 1993; Cooper-Hakim & Viswesvaran, 2005); job performance (Meyer, Paunonen, Gellatly, Goffin & Jackson, 1989; Riketta, 2002); gender (Aydın, Sarıer & Uysal, 2011); absenteeism (Farrell & Stamm, 1998); career stage and outcomes of OC (Cohen, 1991); person and work-related variables (Lee, Carswell & Allen, 2000); burnout and counter-productive work behaviour (Dalal, 2005); job satisfaction (Cooper-Hakim & Viswesvaran, 2005); morale (DeCottis & Summers, 1987); knowledge sharing (Storey & Quintas, 2001; Hoof & Ridder, 2004), knowledge creation (Thompson & Heron, 2005), knowledge dissemination (Van Der Bij, Song & Weggeman, 2003) and many other variables.

The purpose of the current study is to conduct a meta-analysis investigating the association between gender and teachers' organisational commitment overall and in sub dimensions (affective, continuance and normative commitment). Only studies using the Allen-Meyer's Organisational Commitment scale (1990) were included in the research, owing to the fact that Allen-Meyer's scale is the most widely used instrument in the research context.

Method

A meta-analysis method was employed to answer the research questions. Meta-analysis is a statistical method that integrates the results of a series of independent studies which address related or identical hypotheses (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). The goal of meta-analysis is to find a common metric, or effect size (ES), to encode the selected research findings in a term, common across various studies. In meta-analysis, the effect size is the unit of currency that reflects the strength of a relationship between two variables, namely the control and the experiment group (Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins & Rothstein, 2009).

The steps undertaken for the meta-analysis are:

  1. developing concise criteria for inclusion
  2. identification of relevant studies
  3. coding procedure
  4. calculating standardised effect sizes for individual studies and generating an overall effect size across overall and sub-group dimensions of commitment
  5. publication bias

Criteria for including studies

Initially, the criteria for studies to be included in this analysis were determined as the following:
  1. Studies focusing on teacher commitment;
  2. Studies reporting gender as a demographic variable;
  3. Studies reporting quantitative data (sample size, SD, mean or sample size T value or F value) for the calculation of effect size;
  4. Topic-related Masters or PhD theses and studies published in a professional journal between 2000 and 2014.

Identification of studies

The search for studies to be used in this meta-analyses involved computer and manual methods in order to identify existing studies on teacher organisational commitment. A computerised search included the following databases: ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), EBSCO, Psycinfo, ProQuest, ASOS Index (Akademia Index of Social Sciences), Higher Education Council National Dissertation Centre, and Google Scholar. Search terms used were teacher commitment, organisational commitment and commitment scale. Further, the names of previously identified authors of short-listed articles were searched in the ERIC and ProQuest databases. Lastly, reference lists of all short-listed articles were manually scanned for further relevant titles. The databases used were searched for the period 2000-2013 (in November, 2013). In addition to computerised searches, journals of schools of educational sciences were searched manually. With the elimination of double entries, 108 studies were yielded. After the initial examination of abstracts of each study, 69 studies, 53 theses and 16 journal articles, were selected for full review. With the identification of 3 journal articles that were reproduced from 3 theses that are included in the pool of 69 studies, the 3 theses were eliminated.

A more detailed review of the 66 studies revealed that 33 studies investigated overall organisational commitment. Eighteen of those studies adopted the Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment scale (1990) and in the remaining 13 studies two different organisational commitment scales were used (Porter, Steers, Mowday & Boulian, 1974; O'Reilly & Chatman, 1986). Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment Scale is the most widely used commitment scale worldwide. Among 69 studies identified at first hand to be included in the study, in 33 of them the Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment Scale was employed. Therefore those 33 studies which utilised the Turkish version of the questionnaire for the Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment scale (1990) adapted by Boylu, Pelit and Güçer (2007) were included in the meta-analysis. Of the 33 studies:

Coding procedure

On the basis of Lipsey and Wilson (2001) a coding form that specifies the information to be extracted from each eligible study was developed. The coding form consists of information about study characteristics (study descriptors) and the empirical findings of the study. Therefore the study findings represented in the form of effect size values are the dependent variables of this meta-analysis. Study characteristics such as methods, samples and contexts constitute the independent variables. The coding form included the following components.
  1. Bibliographic reference: Study ID, type of publication, publication year.
  2. Sample descriptors: Sample size, gender, place of the study, school level, year the study conducted.
  3. Effect size (EF) section: Means, standard deviations, T value, F value, chi-squares and effect size calculations.
All studies were coded both by the author of the study and a colleague experienced in data coding in meta-analysis. Inter-rater agreement levels for the three coding categories ranged from 99% to 100%.

As seen in Table 1 the sample of 33 studies included in the meta-analysis consisted of 11,690 teachers in total. There seems to be a balance (53:47%) between the number of female teachers, 6,232, and the number of male teachers, 5,458. The demographic characteristics of the sample group can be seen in detail in Table 1. Among the 33 studies included in the meta-analysis there are 25 Masters theses, seven journal articles, and one PhD dissertations.

In this meta-analysis the effect of gender on organisational commitment of teachers was investigated. Effect size d (Cohen's ES) calculation system, which is defined by Cohen (1988) as the difference between the means, M1 - M2, divided by standard deviation of either group, was used. Statistical data from each study were converted to an effect size metric by employing formulas provided by Borenstein et al. (2009). Two different data types were used to measure ES: (a) studies that reported sample size, standard deviation and mean values for male and female teachers, (b) studies that reported sample size for male and female teachers and p-value. Cohen's (1988) ES classification system (ES = 0.2 small effect, ES = 0.5 medium effect, and ES = 0.8 large effect) was used for interpreting the findings.

Calculating effect size values

The practice of using fixed or random effects model in meta-analysis is a widely discussed issue among scholars. Only generalisations to the study sample can be made by using the fixed effects model, while generalisations to a larger population are more suitable using the random effects model (Cooper & Hedges, 1994; Hedges & Vevea, 1998).

Table 2 identifies the results of homogeneity tests for overall and sub-group commitment types. The variation among correlations was analysed using Hedges's Q test of homogeneity to test the homogeneity of the correlations, (Hedges & Olkin, 1985). This test uses chi-square statistics, with (k - 1) degrees of freedom, where k is the number of correlations in the analysis. As the results of the analysis show, in cases where significance was below (p value) 0.05 for both overall and sub-group dimensions of commitment, a random effects model was employed.

Table 1: Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

NoAuthorsTitleData coll.
date
Pub.
type
SampleEduc.
level
PlaceOver-all
comm.
Comm
dim.
FM
1Akgül, 2012Organizational commitment and perception of organizational identity2010-2011MT199101ESakarya
x
2Akyol et al., 2013Commitment levels of physical education and classroom teachersNAArtic.116184ETurkey
x
3Altın, 2010Organizational commitment and creativity2009-2010MT11062EIstanbulx
4Altun, 2010Organizational trust and organizational commitment2009-2010MT19471E-SIstanbulxx
5Aydoğan, 2008Work stress and organizational commitmentNAMT265113EAnkara
x
6Aykut, 2007Organizational justice and commitment2006-2007MT375346EIstanbulx
7Başyiğit, 2009Participating decision making and organizational commitment2008-2009MT187134EAnkaraxx
8Budak, 2009Organizational commitment of paid and employed teachers2008-2009MT264211EKocaelixx
9Canpolat, 2011Teacher career steps and motivation and commitment2010-2011MT178249EElazığ
x
10Çakır, 2007Organizational commitment and school culture2006-2007MT13367EIstanbulxx
11Çakınberk et al., 2011Organizational identification and commitmentNAArtic.6372NAMalatya
Tunceli

x
12Danış, 2009Organizational commitment degrees of teachers2008-2009MT48192SIzmitxx
13Doğan, A., 2008Organizational justice and commitment2007-2008MT150156EElazığ
x
14Doğan, N., 2009Emotional intelligence and organizational commitment2009-2010MT174138EIstanbulxx
15Eğriboy-un, 2013Organizational support and commitment2011-2012PhD
thesis
256273SBoluxx
16Eskiköy-Aydoğan, 2010Organizational commitment degrees of teachers2009-2010MT8169SIstanbul
x
17Garipağ-aoğlu, 2013Examining organizational commitment of private school teachers2012Artic.35111E-SIstanbulx
18Işık, 2009Ethical leadership and organizational commitment2008-2009MT153106EIstanbul
x
19Kahveci, 2010Organizational silence and commitment2009-2010MT186256EElazığ
x
20Karaca, 2009HRM competencies of leaders and organizational commitment of teachers2008-2009MT210193EAntalyaxx
21Kılıçoğlu, 2010Teacher perception of organizational commitment2009-2010MT341143Eİzmir
x
22Kolay, 2012Organizational silence and commitment2011-2012MT9450Sİstanbulxx
23Kurşuno-ğlu et al., 2010Organizational commitment degrees of teachers2009-2010Artic.238115EIzmir
x
24Nartgün & Menep, 2010Teacher perception of organizational commitment2008-2009Artic.233230EŞırnak
x
25Özkan, 2008Organizational commitment degrees of teachers2007-2008MT148165ESakarya
x
26Paker, 2009Organizational trust and commitment2008-2009MT183116ESakarya
x
27Sarıkaya, 2011Organizational commitment and performance2010-2011MT12743EIstanbul
x
28Topaloğlu et al., 2008Investigation of organizational commitment around some basic variablesNAArtic.242101E-SAnkarax
29Yalçın, 2009Validity and reliability analysis of Meyer & Allen scale into Turkish2008MT148289E-STokatxx
30Yıldırım, 2013School principal's role of supervision and organizational commitment of teachers2011-2012MT209200EElazığxx
31Yörük & Sağban, 2012School principal's cultural leadership and organizational commitment of teachers2009-2010Artic.352425E-SAfyonxx
32Yumuşak, 2013Mobbing and organizational commitment2011-2012MT383319ETokat
x
33Zeyrek, 2008Success and organizational commitment2005-2006MT157158E-SIstanbulxx
NA: Not applicable. E: Elementary. S: Secondary. MT: Masters Thesis

Table 2: Q test and I2 indices for heterogeneity meta-analyses
for overall and sub-group commitment

CommitmentkQPI295% CI
Ll / Lu
Model
Overall commitment1858.0530.00070.716-0.074 / 0.121Random (p<0.05)
Affective commitment30202.0850.00085.650-0.106 / 0.106Random (p<0.05)
Continuance commitment29136.0610.00079.421-0.005 / 0.173Random (p<0.05)
Normative commitment29142.4420.00080.343-0.008 / 0.178Random (p<0.05)
k: number of studies. Q: homogeneity test. P: probability level associated to the Q test. I2 : I2 index.
95% CI: 95% confidence interval around I2 . Ll and Lu: lower and upper confidence limits for I2.

Publication bias

In meta-analysis publication bias calculations play a significant role in ensuring the reliability of the analysis. In this study, in order to prevent the 'File drawer' effect (which refers to studies never reported because of finding nothing of statistical significance or finding something that is contrary to the existing research) on the ES values in the meta-analysis, Rosenthal's (1991) 'Fail-safe N' method was employed. Fail-safe N reveals the number of missing studies required to render the effect statistically insignificant. Therefore, the Fail-safe N helps to determine the likelihood of publication bias possibility.

Findings

Overall organisational commitment

In the meta-analysis that was conducted to determine the effects of gender on the overall organisational commitment of teachers, 18 studies were included. The analysis revealed that the lowest effect size was calculated as -0.348 (for the benefit of females) and the highest effect size was calculated as 0.812 among the 18 studies.

Table 3: Overall commitment studies included in the meta-analysis

No.AuthorsEffect size95% Confidence intervalTest of null
hypothesis (2-tail)
Sample size
GSELower limitUpper limitMaleFemale
1Yörük & Sağban, 2012-0.0980.072-0.2390.044-1.356425352
2Budak, 2009-0.2650.093-0.446-0.083-2.858211264
3Çakır, 20070.1430.149-0.1500.4360.95967133
4Danış, 2009-0.0750.161-0.3910.240-0,46919248
5Karaca, 2009-0.0960.100-0.2920.099-0.968193210
6Sarıkaya, 20110.8120.1810.4571.1674.48443127
7Kolay, 20120.0700.174-0.2720.4110.4015094
8Yıldırım, 20130.1590.099-0.0350.3531.608200209
9Eğriboyun, 20130.0270.087-0.1440.1970.308273256
10Altın, 20100.5300.1610.2150.8453.30162110
11Altun, 20100.0420.138-0.2290.3130.30571194
12Zeyrak, 2008-0.3480.113-0.570-0.126-3.075158157
13Aykut, 20070.0070.074-0.1390.1530.098346375
14Başyiğit, 2009-0.0820.113-0.3030.139-0.726134187
15Yalçın, 2009-0.1030.101-0.3010.095-1.024289148
16Topaloğlu, et al. 20090.0450.118-0.1870.2760.378101242
17Garipağaoğlu, 20130.2030.193-0.1760.5821.05135111
18Doğan, N. 2009-0.0330.114-0.2560.190-0.288138174

Cumulative0.0230.050-0.0740.1210.46629883391

When the ES values for each study is examined (see Table 3), among 8 studies that revealed males with higher overall commitment degrees than females, only one study had a medium ES with the value 0.348; one study had a small ES with the value 0.265 and for other studies the ES value revealed to be not significant in Cohen's classification (1988).

Among the studies that were included in overall organisational commitment, 10 studies revealed that organisational commitment degrees of females were higher than those of males. Among those 10 studies, one revealed an ES value (0.812) with a large level of association between gender and organisational commitment, one study revealed a medium level of association with 0.530 ES value and another study revealed a small association with 0.203 ES value. The ES values of the remaining seven studies revealed insignificant ES values.

Figure 1

Figure 1: Forest plot of the effects of gender on
overall teacher organisational commitment

Figure 1 illustrates the forest plot of the effects of gender on overall organisational commitment of teachers. Analysis employing a fixed effects model on 18 studies reveals ES as 0.023 within 0.121 and -0.074 95% confidence interval in favour of female teachers. This finding shows that female teachers have higher overall organisational commitment than male teachers. Using Cohen's (1977) classification, the overall ES value reflects insignificant differences between female and male teachers' overall organisational commitment. The fail-safe N method (Rosenthal, 1991) employed to assess publication bias for overall commitment was calculated to be 396. This means that 396 unpublished studies with a mean effect size of zero would need to be included in the sample to reduce the observed effect size of 0.023 to 0. As the fail-safe N is substantially higher than the number of studies included in the analysis, the result of the meta-analysis can be interpreted as reliable.

Affective organisational commitment

In the meta-analysis that was conducted to determine the effects of gender on affective organisational commitment of teachers, 30 studies were included. The analysis revealed that the lowest effect size was calculated as -0.486 (for the benefit of females) and the highest effect size was calculated as 1.416 for each of the 30 studies.

Table 4: Affective commitment studies included in the meta-analysis

No.AuthorsEffect size95% Confidence intervalTest of null
hypothesis (2-tail)
Sample size
GSELower limitUpper limitMaleFemale
1Akyol, et al., 20130.1670.118-0.0650.4001.413184116
2Yörük & Sağban, 2012-0.1210.072-0.2620.020-1.678425352
3Budak, 2009-0.1400.092-0.3210.041-1.520211264
4Çakır, 20070.1890.150-0.1040.4821.26367133
5Canpolat, 2011-0.4860.099-0.681-0.291-4.892249178
6Danıs, 2009-0.2900.161-0.6070.026-1.79919248
7Aydoğan, 20080.0910.112-0.1290.3110.812113265
8Isık, 2009-0.1460.126-0.3940.101-1.160106153
9Kahveci, 20100.2160.0960.0270.4052.244256186
10Karaca, 2009-0.2040.100-0.400-0.009-2.047193210
11Kılıçoğlu, 2010-0.0860.100-0.2810.109-0.865143341
12Özkan, 20080.1130.113-0.1080.3351.003165148
13Paker, 20090.1430.119-0.0890.3751.205116183
14Sarıkaya, 20111.4160.1921.0401.7927.38743127
15Yumusak, 2013-0.4250.077-0.576-0.275-5.557319383
16Akgül, 2012-0.3340.114-0.558-0.111-2.934161150
17Kolay, 20120.1220.174-0.2190.4640.7015094
18Yıldırım, 20130.0320.099-0.1620.2260.324200209
19Eğriboyun, 20130.0200.087-0.1500.1910.233273256
20Altın, 20101.1760.1700.8421.5106.9026210
21Altun, 20100.0130.138-0.2580.2840.09471194
22Zeyrek, 2008-0.3590.113-0.581-0.137-3.165158157
23Basyiğit, 2009-0.0750.113-0.2970.146-0.667134187
24Çakınberk, 2011-0.2560.172-0.5930.082-1.4847263
25Yalçın, 2009-0.0340.101-0.2320.164-0.335289148
26Kursunoğlu et al., 2010-0.1600.113-0.3820.063-1.409115238
27Nartgün & Menep, 20100.0340.093-0.1480.2160.367230233
28Doğan, N., 2009-0.1030.114-0.3260.120-0.903138174
29Doğan, A., 2008-0.1130.114-0.3370.1107-0.993156150
30Eskiköy-Aydoğan, 20100.1550.163-0.1650.4750.9526981

Cumulative0.0000.054-0.1060.1060.00649605431

When the ES value for each study is examined (see Table 4), among the 16 studies that revealed males with higher affective commitment levels than females, three studies had a small ES, with values of -0.204; -0.256 and -0.290; 3 studies had medium ES with the values of -0.334; -0.359; -0.425 and -0.486. For the other studies, the ES value emerged as insignificant in Cohen's classification (1988).

Among the studies that were included in overall organisational commitment, 14 studies revealed that affective organisational commitment levels of females were higher than males. Among those 14 studies, one revealed a small ES value 0.216 and two studies revealed large effect sizes as 1.416 and 1.176. The ES values of the rest of the seven studies revealed insignificant ES values.

Figure 2

Figure 2: Forest plot of the effects of gender on teacher affective commitment

Figure 2 illustrates the forest plot of the effects of gender on affective organisational commitment of teachers. Analysis done employing fixed effects model on 30 studies revealed ES as 0.00 within an upper limit of 0.106, and a -0.106 lower limit of 95% confidence interval in favour of female teachers. This finding shows that there is no significant association between female and male teacher affective organisational commitment.

Continuance organisational commitment

In the meta-analysis that was conducted to determine the effects of gender on continuance organisational commitment of teachers, 29 studies were included. The analysis revealed that the lowest effect size was calculated as -0.223 (for the benefit of females) and the highest effect size was calculated as 1.565 among the 29 studies.

When the ES values for each study is examined (see Table 5), among 10 studies that revealed males with higher continuance commitment degrees than females, only one study had a small ES with the value of -0.223. For the other studies, the ES value revealed to be not significant in Cohen's classification (1988).

Among the studies that were included in meta-analysis, 19 studies revealed that organisational continuance commitment degrees of females were higher than males. Of those 19 studies, two revealed small ES values 0.234 and 0.203; two studies revealed large effect sizes as 1.565 and 1.068. The ES values of the remaining 15 studies revealed no significant ES values.

Table 5: Continuance commitment studies included in the meta-analysis

No.AuthorsEffect size95% Confidence intervalTest of null
hypothesis (2-tail)
Sample size
GSELower limitUpper limitMaleFemale
1Akyol, et al., 20130.2030.119-0.0300.4361.707184116
2Yörük & Sağban, 20120.0000.072-0.1410.1410.000425352
3Budak, 20090.890.093-0.0930.2710.959230233
4Çakır, 2007-0.1500.092-0.3310.031-1.622211264
5Canpolat, 2011-0.1400.098-0.3320.052-1.427249178
6Danıs, 20090.0140.161-0.3020.3290.08419248
7Aydoğan, 20080.1350.112-0.0850.3551.204113265
8Isık, 2009-0.2230.126-0.4710.025-1.764106153
9Kahveci, 20100.1040.096-0.0850.2931.081256186
10Karaca, 20090.0680.100-0.1280.2630.678193210
11Kılıçoğlu, 20100.1590.100-0.0360.3541.597143341
12Özkan, 2008-0.0230.113-0.2450.198-0.207165148
13Paker, 20090.1740.119-0.0580.4071.469116183
14Sarıkaya1.5650.1951.1821.9478.02143127
15Yumusak, 20130.2340.0760.0850.3833.077319383
16Akgül, 2012-0.0640.113-0.2860.158-0.562161150
17Kolay, 20120.0220.174-0.3190.3640.1295094
18Yıldırım, 20130.0280.099-0.1660.2210.282200209
19Eğriboyun, 20130.0450.087-0.1250.2160.522273256
20Altın, 20101.0680.1670.7411.3956.39963112
21Altun, 2010-0.1320.138-0.4030.140-0.95271194
22Zeyrek, 2008-0.0760.112-0.2970.144-0.680158157
23Basyiğit, 20090.0350.113-0.1860.2560.309134187
24Çakınberk, 2011-0.1630.172-0.5000.173-0.9507263
25Kursunoğlu, et al., 2010-0.1780.114-0.4000.045-1.566115238
26Nartgün & Menep, 20100.0890.093-0.0930.2710.959230233
27Doğan, N., 2009-0.1310.114-0.3540.092-1.152138174
28Doğan, A., 20080.1870.114-0.0370.4111.636156150
29Eskiköy-Aydoğan, 20100.0380.163-0.2820.3570.2326981

Cumulative0.0840.046-0.0050.1731.83948355485

Figure 3 illustrates the forest plot of the effects of gender on affective organisational commitment of teachers. Analysis done employing the fixed effects model on 29 studies revealed ES as 0.084 within 0.173 upper limit and -0.005 lower limit of 95% confidence interval in favour of female teachers. This finding shows that there is no significant association between female and male teacher continuance organisational commitment. However the fail-safe N method (Rosenthal, 1991) employed to assess the publication bias for continuance commitment was calculated to be 2407. This means that although the ES is not significant this value obtained from 29 studies can be reduced to 0 only with the inclusion of 2407 studies.

Figure 3

Figure 3: Forest plot of the effects of gender on teacher continuance commitment

Normative organisational commitment

In the meta-analysis that was conducted to determine the effects of gender on normative organisational commitment of teachers, 29 studies were included. The analysis revealed that the lowest effect size was calculated as -0.426 (for the benefit of females) and the highest effect size was calculated as 1.069 among the 29 studies.

When the ES values for each study is examined (see Table 6), among 11 studies that revealed males with higher normative organisational commitment degrees than females, two studies had small ES with the values of -0.287 and -0.301; three studies revealed medium ES values -0.426; -0.392; -0.347; -0.301. For the other studies the ES value was found to be not significant in Cohen's classification (1988).

Among the studies that were included in the meta-analysis, 18 studies revealed that normative organisational commitment degrees of females were higher than males. Among those 18 studies, two reveal small ES values 0.277 and 0.252; one study revealed medium effect size of 0.492; one study reveals a large effect size as 1.069. The ES values of remaining 14 studies revealed no significant ES values.

Table 6: Normative commitment studies included in the meta-analysis

No.AuthorsEffect size95% Confidence intervalTest of null
hypothesis (2-tail)
Sample size
GSELower limitUpper limitMaleFemale
1Akyol, et al., 2013-0.1970.119-0.4290.035-1.661184116
2Yörük & Sagban, 2012-0.0190.072-0.1600.122-0.267425352
3Budak, 20090.2520.0930.0700.4332.718211264
4Çakır, 20070.1970.150-0.0960.4901.31867133
5Canpolat, 2011-0.4260.099-0.620-0.232-4.301249178
6Danıs, 20090.1610.161-0.1550.4760.99719248
7Aydoğan, 20080.0510.112-0.1690.2710.454113265
8Isık, 20090.4920.1280.2410.7433.849106153
9Kahveci, 20100.0920.096-0.0970.2800.953256186
10Kılıçoğlu, 2010-0.0440.099-0.2390.151-0.444143341
11Özkan, 20080.0630.113-0.1590.2840.556148165
12Paker, 2009-0.0480.118-0.2800.184-0.403116183
13Sarıkaya, 20110.0530.176-0.2910.3980.30343127
14Yumusak, 2013-0.3920.076-0.542-0.242-5.127319383
15Akgül, 20120.1130.113-0.1090.3350.997161150
16Kolay, 20120.0120.174-0.3290.353-0.0695094
17Yıldırım, 20130.0280.099-0.1660.2210.282200209
18Eğriboyun, 20130.0920.087-0.0790.2621.056273256
19Altın, 20101.0690.1660.7441.3946.44763112
20Altun, 20100.1870.139-0.0850.4581.34771194
21Zeyrek, 2008-0.3010.113-0.522-0.079-2.655158157
22Basyiğit, 2009-0.1340.113-0.3560.087-1.189134187
23Yalçın, 2009-0.0350.101-0.2490.180-0.317289148
24Çakınberk, 2011-0.3470.173-0.686-0.008-2.0077263
25Kursunoğlu, et al., 20100.2770.1140.0540.5002.432115238
26Nartgün & Menep, 20100.0220.093-0.1600.2040.239230233
27Doğan, N., 20090.1080.114-0.1150.3310.951138174
28Doğan, A., 20080.0000.114-0.2240.2240.000156150
29Eskiköy-Aydoğan, 2010-0.2870.165-0.6100.039-1.7266879

Cumulative0.0290.047-0.0640.1220.61247505338

Discussion and conclusion

The study covered 33 theses and articles covering the years 2000-2014. According to the results of the analysis, the mean effect sizes for overall, affective, continuance and normative OC showed that the effect of gender on the organisational commitment of teachers was slightly in favour of females with overall OC ES of 0.023, Affective commitment ES 0.00, Continuance commitment ES 0.084 and Normative commitment ES 0.029. However ES values did not reveal gender as a significant variable in determining teachers' level of organisational commitment.

Prior research revealed inconsistent conclusions about the link between gender and OC. In several studies, men were found to be more committed than women (Marsden, Kalleberg, & Cook, 1993; Dixon, Turner, Cunningham, Sagas & Kent, 2005; Kalleberg & Marsden, 1995). The traditional breadwinner role of men may explain men having a higher OC level than women. Owing to the gender stereotypes, there are presumptions that women are expected to be less committed to work and inclined to leave their jobs at higher rates than men (Marsden et al., 1993). In many other studies women were found to be more committed than men (Alvi & Ahmed, 1987; Hrebiniak & Alutto, 1972; Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982). However, while such conclusions are being made, job characteristics should not be ignored as they explain a good deal about gender differences in job and career variables.

Figure 4

Figure 4: Forest plot of the effects of gender on teacher normative commitment

On the other hand there are meta-analytic reviews of literature that examine the link between gender and OC. Mathieu and Zajac (1990) examined gender and OC in 14 studies and found out that women displayed slightly higher commitment. However as with the findings of this study, they concluded that there was an inconsistent relationship between gender and levels of OC. A similar finding was put forth by Cohen and Lowenberg (1990) stating that a conclusion cannot be drawn about a significant relationship between gender and OC. In their meta-analysis on gender and organisational commitment of teachers, Aydın, Sarıer and Uysal (2011) studied 15 Masters and PhD theses covering the years 2005-2009. The results of their study show that using random effects model ES values for Affective commitment is 0.06; Continuance commitment is 0.07; and Normative commitment is 0.01 in favour of females. Judgments employing Cohen's ES calculation system revealed no links between gender and levels of OC. The findings of the previous meta-analytic research investigating the relation between gender and levels of OC are in line with the findings of the current study.

While interpreting the results of this meta-analysis, limitations of the study should be kept in mind. Its scope is limited to national studies/theses published or completed between 2000-2014. The reason for not going back further than 10 years is the limited availability of the dissertations electronically prior to 2000. The financial cost and time constraint for obtaining hard copy dissertations was prohibitive.

This research is aimed to make a valuable contribution to the global literature on the association between organisational commitment and gender. The Three-Component model of Allen Meyer is increasingly being conducted around the world. Based on the cultural and geographical differences among countries and even continents, the model may reveal interesting findings across gender and levels of OC. Therefore, more systematic cross-cultural research is needed to examine the relationship between gender and levels of organisational commitment.

Acknowledgments

I thank Dr Güzide Bayhan for her invaluable contributions during the study.

Endnotes

A report of some of the data in this paper was presented at 21st National Conference on Educational Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey, Proceedings Abstracts (p.34), 12-14 September 2012.

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Author: Dr Gulay Dalgic is currently a post-doctoral research fellow at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, on leave from her position as an assistant professor at Bahçeşehir University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Istanbul. Her research interests are school principals as reflective practitioners, leadership development in education and school dropout. Email: glydalgic@gmail.com

Please cite as: Dalgiç, G. (2014). A meta-analysis: Exploring the effects of gender on organisational commitment of teachers. Issues in Educational Research, 24(2), 133-151. http://www.iier.org.au/iier24/dalgic.html


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