A meta-analysis: Exploring the effects of gender on organisational commitment of teachers
Victoria University of Wellington and Bahçeşehir University
The consequences of organisational commitment (OC) are of great importance to organisations. Considering the effect of teacher commitment on student success and the increasing teacher turnover rates in the world, studies focusing on the organisational commitment of teachers gained more importance. However there is still a significant gap about the demographic and other factors that affect teachers' organisational commitment. This meta-analysis examines the relation between gender and organisational commitment of teachers. The relation was investigated as overall and in sub-dimensions of organisational commitment: affective, continuance and normative organisational commitment. 33 studies that use the Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment scale and which were carried out between 2000-2014 were used in the study. The sample included 11,690 teachers (female 6,232, male 5,458). Although the mean effect sizes for overall, affective, continuance and normative OC show that the effect of gender on the organisational commitment of teachers is in favour of females, the results highlight that gender is not a significant variable in determining teachers' level of organisational commitment.
Allen and Meyer (1990) theorised three distinct components of organisational commitment that maintain the employees' membership in an organisation: (a) affective commitment - a desire, (b) continuance commitment - a need, and (c) normative commitment - an obligation. It is noted that the extent of those three forms of organisational commitment rely on employees' motivation for growth and self-actualisation in the organisation. Over the past 40 years, the phenomenon of organisational commitment has been investigated in a variety of contexts in relation to some other variables and possible antecedents. There are many meta-analyses in the literature seeking to establish for the relationship between organisational commitment and antecedents, correlates and consequences (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch & Topolnystsky, 2002); turnover (Cohen, 1993; Cooper-Hakim & Viswesvaran, 2005); job performance (Meyer, Paunonen, Gellatly, Goffin & Jackson, 1989; Riketta, 2002); gender (Aydın, Sarıer & Uysal, 2011); absenteeism (Farrell & Stamm, 1998); career stage and outcomes of OC (Cohen, 1991); person and work-related variables (Lee, Carswell & Allen, 2000); burnout and counter-productive work behaviour (Dalal, 2005); job satisfaction (Cooper-Hakim & Viswesvaran, 2005); morale (DeCottis & Summers, 1987); knowledge sharing (Storey & Quintas, 2001; Hoof & Ridder, 2004), knowledge creation (Thompson & Heron, 2005), knowledge dissemination (Van Der Bij, Song & Weggeman, 2003) and many other variables.
The purpose of the current study is to conduct a meta-analysis investigating the association between gender and teachers' organisational commitment overall and in sub dimensions (affective, continuance and normative commitment). Only studies using the Allen-Meyer's Organisational Commitment scale (1990) were included in the research, owing to the fact that Allen-Meyer's scale is the most widely used instrument in the research context.
The steps undertaken for the meta-analysis are:
A more detailed review of the 66 studies revealed that 33 studies investigated overall organisational commitment. Eighteen of those studies adopted the Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment scale (1990) and in the remaining 13 studies two different organisational commitment scales were used (Porter, Steers, Mowday & Boulian, 1974; O'Reilly & Chatman, 1986). Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment Scale is the most widely used commitment scale worldwide. Among 69 studies identified at first hand to be included in the study, in 33 of them the Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment Scale was employed. Therefore those 33 studies which utilised the Turkish version of the questionnaire for the Allen Meyer Organisational Commitment scale (1990) adapted by Boylu, Pelit and Güçer (2007) were included in the meta-analysis. Of the 33 studies:
As seen in Table 1 the sample of 33 studies included in the meta-analysis consisted of 11,690 teachers in total. There seems to be a balance (53:47%) between the number of female teachers, 6,232, and the number of male teachers, 5,458. The demographic characteristics of the sample group can be seen in detail in Table 1. Among the 33 studies included in the meta-analysis there are 25 Masters theses, seven journal articles, and one PhD dissertations.
In this meta-analysis the effect of gender on organisational commitment of teachers was investigated. Effect size d (Cohen's ES) calculation system, which is defined by Cohen (1988) as the difference between the means, M1 - M2, divided by standard deviation of either group, was used. Statistical data from each study were converted to an effect size metric by employing formulas provided by Borenstein et al. (2009). Two different data types were used to measure ES: (a) studies that reported sample size, standard deviation and mean values for male and female teachers, (b) studies that reported sample size for male and female teachers and p-value. Cohen's (1988) ES classification system (ES = 0.2 small effect, ES = 0.5 medium effect, and ES = 0.8 large effect) was used for interpreting the findings.
Table 2 identifies the results of homogeneity tests for overall and sub-group commitment types. The variation among correlations was analysed using Hedges's Q test of homogeneity to test the homogeneity of the correlations, (Hedges & Olkin, 1985). This test uses chi-square statistics, with (k - 1) degrees of freedom, where k is the number of correlations in the analysis. As the results of the analysis show, in cases where significance was below (p value) 0.05 for both overall and sub-group dimensions of commitment, a random effects model was employed.
|1||Akgül, 2012||Organizational commitment and perception of organizational identity||2010-2011||MT||199||101||E||Sakarya||x|
|2||Akyol et al., 2013||Commitment levels of physical education and classroom teachers||NA||Artic.||116||184||E||Turkey||x|
|3||Altın, 2010||Organizational commitment and creativity||2009-2010||MT||110||62||E||Istanbul||x|
|4||Altun, 2010||Organizational trust and organizational commitment||2009-2010||MT||194||71||E-S||Istanbul||x||x|
|5||Aydoğan, 2008||Work stress and organizational commitment||NA||MT||265||113||E||Ankara||x|
|6||Aykut, 2007||Organizational justice and commitment||2006-2007||MT||375||346||E||Istanbul||x|
|7||Başyiğit, 2009||Participating decision making and organizational commitment||2008-2009||MT||187||134||E||Ankara||x||x|
|8||Budak, 2009||Organizational commitment of paid and employed teachers||2008-2009||MT||264||211||E||Kocaeli||x||x|
|9||Canpolat, 2011||Teacher career steps and motivation and commitment||2010-2011||MT||178||249||E||Elazığ||x|
|10||Çakır, 2007||Organizational commitment and school culture||2006-2007||MT||133||67||E||Istanbul||x||x|
|11||Çakınberk et al., 2011||Organizational identification and commitment||NA||Artic.||63||72||NA||Malatya|
|12||Danış, 2009||Organizational commitment degrees of teachers||2008-2009||MT||48||192||S||Izmit||x||x|
|13||Doğan, A., 2008||Organizational justice and commitment||2007-2008||MT||150||156||E||Elazığ||x|
|14||Doğan, N., 2009||Emotional intelligence and organizational commitment||2009-2010||MT||174||138||E||Istanbul||x||x|
|15||Eğriboy-un, 2013||Organizational support and commitment||2011-2012||PhD|
|16||Eskiköy-Aydoğan, 2010||Organizational commitment degrees of teachers||2009-2010||MT||81||69||S||Istanbul||x|
|17||Garipağ-aoğlu, 2013||Examining organizational commitment of private school teachers||2012||Artic.||35||111||E-S||Istanbul||x|
|18||Işık, 2009||Ethical leadership and organizational commitment||2008-2009||MT||153||106||E||Istanbul||x|
|19||Kahveci, 2010||Organizational silence and commitment||2009-2010||MT||186||256||E||Elazığ||x|
|20||Karaca, 2009||HRM competencies of leaders and organizational commitment of teachers||2008-2009||MT||210||193||E||Antalya||x||x|
|21||Kılıçoğlu, 2010||Teacher perception of organizational commitment||2009-2010||MT||341||143||E||İzmir||x|
|22||Kolay, 2012||Organizational silence and commitment||2011-2012||MT||94||50||S||İstanbul||x||x|
|23||Kurşuno-ğlu et al., 2010||Organizational commitment degrees of teachers||2009-2010||Artic.||238||115||E||Izmir||x|
|24||Nartgün & Menep, 2010||Teacher perception of organizational commitment||2008-2009||Artic.||233||230||E||Şırnak||x|
|25||Özkan, 2008||Organizational commitment degrees of teachers||2007-2008||MT||148||165||E||Sakarya||x|
|26||Paker, 2009||Organizational trust and commitment||2008-2009||MT||183||116||E||Sakarya||x|
|27||Sarıkaya, 2011||Organizational commitment and performance||2010-2011||MT||127||43||E||Istanbul||x|
|28||Topaloğlu et al., 2008||Investigation of organizational commitment around some basic variables||NA||Artic.||242||101||E-S||Ankara||x|
|29||Yalçın, 2009||Validity and reliability analysis of Meyer & Allen scale into Turkish||2008||MT||148||289||E-S||Tokat||x||x|
|30||Yıldırım, 2013||School principal's role of supervision and organizational commitment of teachers||2011-2012||MT||209||200||E||Elazığ||x||x|
|31||Yörük & Sağban, 2012||School principal's cultural leadership and organizational commitment of teachers||2009-2010||Artic.||352||425||E-S||Afyon||x||x|
|32||Yumuşak, 2013||Mobbing and organizational commitment||2011-2012||MT||383||319||E||Tokat||x|
|33||Zeyrek, 2008||Success and organizational commitment||2005-2006||MT||157||158||E-S||Istanbul||x||x|
|NA: Not applicable. E: Elementary. S: Secondary. MT: Masters Thesis|
Ll / Lu
|Overall commitment||18||58.053||0.000||70.716||-0.074 / 0.121||Random (p<0.05)|
|Affective commitment||30||202.085||0.000||85.650||-0.106 / 0.106||Random (p<0.05)|
|Continuance commitment||29||136.061||0.000||79.421||-0.005 / 0.173||Random (p<0.05)|
|Normative commitment||29||142.442||0.000||80.343||-0.008 / 0.178||Random (p<0.05)|
|k: number of studies. Q: homogeneity test. P: probability level associated to the Q test. I2 : I2 index.|
95% CI: 95% confidence interval around I2 . Ll and Lu: lower and upper confidence limits for I2.
|No.||Authors||Effect size||95% Confidence interval||Test of null|
|G||SE||Lower limit||Upper limit||Male||Female|
|1||Yörük & Sağban, 2012||-0.098||0.072||-0.239||0.044||-1.356||425||352|
|16||Topaloğlu, et al. 2009||0.045||0.118||-0.187||0.276||0.378||101||242|
|18||Doğan, N. 2009||-0.033||0.114||-0.256||0.190||-0.288||138||174|
When the ES values for each study is examined (see Table 3), among 8 studies that revealed males with higher overall commitment degrees than females, only one study had a medium ES with the value 0.348; one study had a small ES with the value 0.265 and for other studies the ES value revealed to be not significant in Cohen's classification (1988).
Among the studies that were included in overall organisational commitment, 10 studies revealed that organisational commitment degrees of females were higher than those of males. Among those 10 studies, one revealed an ES value (0.812) with a large level of association between gender and organisational commitment, one study revealed a medium level of association with 0.530 ES value and another study revealed a small association with 0.203 ES value. The ES values of the remaining seven studies revealed insignificant ES values.
Figure 1: Forest plot of the effects of gender on
overall teacher organisational commitment
Figure 1 illustrates the forest plot of the effects of gender on overall organisational commitment of teachers. Analysis employing a fixed effects model on 18 studies reveals ES as 0.023 within 0.121 and -0.074 95% confidence interval in favour of female teachers. This finding shows that female teachers have higher overall organisational commitment than male teachers. Using Cohen's (1977) classification, the overall ES value reflects insignificant differences between female and male teachers' overall organisational commitment. The fail-safe N method (Rosenthal, 1991) employed to assess publication bias for overall commitment was calculated to be 396. This means that 396 unpublished studies with a mean effect size of zero would need to be included in the sample to reduce the observed effect size of 0.023 to 0. As the fail-safe N is substantially higher than the number of studies included in the analysis, the result of the meta-analysis can be interpreted as reliable.
|No.||Authors||Effect size||95% Confidence interval||Test of null|
|G||SE||Lower limit||Upper limit||Male||Female|
|1||Akyol, et al., 2013||0.167||0.118||-0.065||0.400||1.413||184||116|
|2||Yörük & Sağban, 2012||-0.121||0.072||-0.262||0.020||-1.678||425||352|
|26||Kursunoğlu et al., 2010||-0.160||0.113||-0.382||0.063||-1.409||115||238|
|27||Nartgün & Menep, 2010||0.034||0.093||-0.148||0.216||0.367||230||233|
|28||Doğan, N., 2009||-0.103||0.114||-0.326||0.120||-0.903||138||174|
|29||Doğan, A., 2008||-0.113||0.114||-0.337||0.1107||-0.993||156||150|
When the ES value for each study is examined (see Table 4), among the 16 studies that revealed males with higher affective commitment levels than females, three studies had a small ES, with values of -0.204; -0.256 and -0.290; 3 studies had medium ES with the values of -0.334; -0.359; -0.425 and -0.486. For the other studies, the ES value emerged as insignificant in Cohen's classification (1988).
Among the studies that were included in overall organisational commitment, 14 studies revealed that affective organisational commitment levels of females were higher than males. Among those 14 studies, one revealed a small ES value 0.216 and two studies revealed large effect sizes as 1.416 and 1.176. The ES values of the rest of the seven studies revealed insignificant ES values.
Figure 2: Forest plot of the effects of gender on teacher affective commitment
Figure 2 illustrates the forest plot of the effects of gender on affective organisational commitment of teachers. Analysis done employing fixed effects model on 30 studies revealed ES as 0.00 within an upper limit of 0.106, and a -0.106 lower limit of 95% confidence interval in favour of female teachers. This finding shows that there is no significant association between female and male teacher affective organisational commitment.
When the ES values for each study is examined (see Table 5), among 10 studies that revealed males with higher continuance commitment degrees than females, only one study had a small ES with the value of -0.223. For the other studies, the ES value revealed to be not significant in Cohen's classification (1988).
Among the studies that were included in meta-analysis, 19 studies revealed that organisational continuance commitment degrees of females were higher than males. Of those 19 studies, two revealed small ES values 0.234 and 0.203; two studies revealed large effect sizes as 1.565 and 1.068. The ES values of the remaining 15 studies revealed no significant ES values.
|No.||Authors||Effect size||95% Confidence interval||Test of null|
|G||SE||Lower limit||Upper limit||Male||Female|
|1||Akyol, et al., 2013||0.203||0.119||-0.030||0.436||1.707||184||116|
|2||Yörük & Sağban, 2012||0.000||0.072||-0.141||0.141||0.000||425||352|
|25||Kursunoğlu, et al., 2010||-0.178||0.114||-0.400||0.045||-1.566||115||238|
|26||Nartgün & Menep, 2010||0.089||0.093||-0.093||0.271||0.959||230||233|
|27||Doğan, N., 2009||-0.131||0.114||-0.354||0.092||-1.152||138||174|
|28||Doğan, A., 2008||0.187||0.114||-0.037||0.411||1.636||156||150|
Figure 3 illustrates the forest plot of the effects of gender on affective organisational commitment of teachers. Analysis done employing the fixed effects model on 29 studies revealed ES as 0.084 within 0.173 upper limit and -0.005 lower limit of 95% confidence interval in favour of female teachers. This finding shows that there is no significant association between female and male teacher continuance organisational commitment. However the fail-safe N method (Rosenthal, 1991) employed to assess the publication bias for continuance commitment was calculated to be 2407. This means that although the ES is not significant this value obtained from 29 studies can be reduced to 0 only with the inclusion of 2407 studies.
Figure 3: Forest plot of the effects of gender on teacher continuance commitment
When the ES values for each study is examined (see Table 6), among 11 studies that revealed males with higher normative organisational commitment degrees than females, two studies had small ES with the values of -0.287 and -0.301; three studies revealed medium ES values -0.426; -0.392; -0.347; -0.301. For the other studies the ES value was found to be not significant in Cohen's classification (1988).
Among the studies that were included in the meta-analysis, 18 studies revealed that normative organisational commitment degrees of females were higher than males. Among those 18 studies, two reveal small ES values 0.277 and 0.252; one study revealed medium effect size of 0.492; one study reveals a large effect size as 1.069. The ES values of remaining 14 studies revealed no significant ES values.
|No.||Authors||Effect size||95% Confidence interval||Test of null|
|G||SE||Lower limit||Upper limit||Male||Female|
|1||Akyol, et al., 2013||-0.197||0.119||-0.429||0.035||-1.661||184||116|
|2||Yörük & Sagban, 2012||-0.019||0.072||-0.160||0.122||-0.267||425||352|
|25||Kursunoğlu, et al., 2010||0.277||0.114||0.054||0.500||2.432||115||238|
|26||Nartgün & Menep, 2010||0.022||0.093||-0.160||0.204||0.239||230||233|
|27||Doğan, N., 2009||0.108||0.114||-0.115||0.331||0.951||138||174|
|28||Doğan, A., 2008||0.000||0.114||-0.224||0.224||0.000||156||150|
Prior research revealed inconsistent conclusions about the link between gender and OC. In several studies, men were found to be more committed than women (Marsden, Kalleberg, & Cook, 1993; Dixon, Turner, Cunningham, Sagas & Kent, 2005; Kalleberg & Marsden, 1995). The traditional breadwinner role of men may explain men having a higher OC level than women. Owing to the gender stereotypes, there are presumptions that women are expected to be less committed to work and inclined to leave their jobs at higher rates than men (Marsden et al., 1993). In many other studies women were found to be more committed than men (Alvi & Ahmed, 1987; Hrebiniak & Alutto, 1972; Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982). However, while such conclusions are being made, job characteristics should not be ignored as they explain a good deal about gender differences in job and career variables.
Figure 4: Forest plot of the effects of gender on teacher normative commitment
On the other hand there are meta-analytic reviews of literature that examine the link between gender and OC. Mathieu and Zajac (1990) examined gender and OC in 14 studies and found out that women displayed slightly higher commitment. However as with the findings of this study, they concluded that there was an inconsistent relationship between gender and levels of OC. A similar finding was put forth by Cohen and Lowenberg (1990) stating that a conclusion cannot be drawn about a significant relationship between gender and OC. In their meta-analysis on gender and organisational commitment of teachers, Aydın, Sarıer and Uysal (2011) studied 15 Masters and PhD theses covering the years 2005-2009. The results of their study show that using random effects model ES values for Affective commitment is 0.06; Continuance commitment is 0.07; and Normative commitment is 0.01 in favour of females. Judgments employing Cohen's ES calculation system revealed no links between gender and levels of OC. The findings of the previous meta-analytic research investigating the relation between gender and levels of OC are in line with the findings of the current study.
While interpreting the results of this meta-analysis, limitations of the study should be kept in mind. Its scope is limited to national studies/theses published or completed between 2000-2014. The reason for not going back further than 10 years is the limited availability of the dissertations electronically prior to 2000. The financial cost and time constraint for obtaining hard copy dissertations was prohibitive.
This research is aimed to make a valuable contribution to the global literature on the association between organisational commitment and gender. The Three-Component model of Allen Meyer is increasingly being conducted around the world. Based on the cultural and geographical differences among countries and even continents, the model may reveal interesting findings across gender and levels of OC. Therefore, more systematic cross-cultural research is needed to examine the relationship between gender and levels of organisational commitment.
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|Author: Dr Gulay Dalgic is currently a post-doctoral research fellow at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, on leave from her position as an assistant professor at Bahçeşehir University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Istanbul. Her research interests are school principals as reflective practitioners, leadership development in education and school dropout. Email: email@example.com
Please cite as: Dalgiç, G. (2014). A meta-analysis: Exploring the effects of gender on organisational commitment of teachers. Issues in Educational Research, 24(2), 133-151. http://www.iier.org.au/iier24/dalgic.html