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Issues in Educational Research, 2023, Vol 33(1), 369-389.
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Emotional presence as a cognitive appraisal process in higher education: Scale development and validation

Siaw Eng Tan
International Christian University, Japan

Epistemic engagement among higher education learners often involves cognitive appraisal operations which generate emotional processes. This study aims to develop and validate a multidimensional Emotional Presence Scale (EPS) to measure learners' experience of emotion due to cognitive appraisal in epistemic processes. Based on the cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion, the EPS was developed and validated through a three-phase process of theoretical conceptualisation, item generation and psychometric analysis. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of data on a multi-institutional sample of Japanese universities (N = 361) produced a four-dimensional structure of emotional presence: interest-curiosity, emotional awareness, expression management, and emotional regulation. The EPS has adequate psychometric properties and is meaningfully related to external variables of task value, satisfaction, and motivation. The findings indicate that the EPS could be a desirable tool to measure emotional presence in higher educational settings where epistemic engagement is crucial.
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Author: Siaw Eng Tan, a Monbukagakusho (MEXT) scholar, received her PhD in Education from International Christian University, Japan. Her interest centres on teaching mathematics and pursuing research at the intersection of educational psychology, learning sciences, and educational technology. Whilst at university, she worked as a researcher and trainer for technology-related workshops for graduate students and new faculty members. She was an Assistant Professor of Mathematics of University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus. Currently, she is not affiliated to any educational institution. Commencing May 2023, she will be joining Temple University Japan Campus as an Adjunct Assistant Professor.
Email: siaweng.janicetan@gmail.com

Please cite as: Tan, S. E. (2023). Emotional presence as a cognitive appraisal process in higher education: Scale development and validation. Issues in Educational Research, 33(1), 369-389. http://www.iier.org.au/iier33/tan.pdf

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